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MHR 523 (473)


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Human Resources
MHR 523
Rasha Nasra

Chapter 1- Strategic Importance of Human Resource Management Wednesday, February 20, 2013 5:10 PM Challenges Facing Canadian Organizations Canadian corporationsface a number of challenges today. -economic -technological -political -social -demographic -legal -culture Economic Challenges Canadian business faces three critical economicchallenges: 1) Surviving a recessionarycycle 2) Facing the global trade challenge 3) Meeting of productivity improvement 1) Surviving a RecessionaryCycle HRM face special challenges during a recessionaryperiod. -Carry out the unpleasant task of planning, communicatingand implementing employee layoff -Job insecurity associated with recession causes erosion of employeetrust in management 2) Facing the Global Challenge 40% of Canada's GDP is exports -Canada ranks high among exporting nations -Canadian jobs depend on international trades -Canadian organizations are opening new plants and expanding activities in foreign countries that are closer to their customersor where labour is cheaper -Canada's highly skilled, multicultural workface has given the country a competitiveadvantages in deal with other countries and cultures, anticipating their needs and concerns, and proactively responding to them -Emergence of several low cost trading nations such as Thailand, China, has caused Canada to lose market shares in traditional strongholds such as pulp and paper, cotton, steel -US has been improving its productivity at a fast pace Four of five strategies most commonlyidentified by business executives are HR related 1) Improving workface performance 2) attracting and retaining skilled staff 3) Changing leadership and management behaviours 4) Changing organizational culture and employeeattitudes 3) Meeting the Challenge of ProductivityImprovement Productivity:refers to the ratio of an organization's outputs to its inputs (capital, materials, and energy) -increases as an organization finds new ways to use fewer resources to produce its output -Reduce costs, save scared resources, enhance profits -Improve better pay, benefits, and working conditions -HRM contribute to improve productivitydirectly by finding better, more efficient ways to meet their objectivesand indriectly by improving the quality of work life for employees -Since US is outpacing Canada, Canadian living standards has been decreasing. Productivityneeds to increase One strategy is getting increasingly popular to cut costs is outsourcing (contracting tasks to outside agencies or persons). This reduces the number of workers on payroll. Outsourcing has major implications for HRM. Reduced employeemorale caused by job insecurity is an issue. Outplacement-assisting employeesto find jobs with other employers 4) Technological Challenges Technologyinfluences organizations and the way people work. Computerization -Allowing the processing of vast amounts of data at great speeds, enabling organizations to improveefficiency, responsiveness, and flexibility in operations ProcessingLarge Volumes of Information on a timely basis: Part of the appeal of computers is that they make it possible to process and provide large amounts of data to managers Flexible Work Design and Telecommuting: Computers bring flexibility into when and where the work is carried out Telecommunicatinghas found to cut employeestress and boost worker productivitywhile reducing costs -telecommunicating-paid labour performedat employee'shome, full-time or part- time with assistance of PCs, modems,and fax Information Sharing and Knowledge Management: Computersalso enable organizations to manage their operations innovatively,often reducing costs or capitalizing on new opportunities More effectiveknowledge management has been another outcomeof computerized systems -Knowledge management -process of capturing organizational knowledge and making it available for sharing and building new knowledge -Results in faster, multiway of communication,nontraditional marketing strategies, improved quality control, and more online inventory control -Requires HR practices in areas of hiring, compensation,training, performanceevaluation, and employeerelations Automation -Pushed for speed -Increase predictability in operations, and to achieve higher standards of quality in productions -Allows flexibility in operations 5) DemographicChallenges -DemographicChanges- changes in demographics of the labour force that occur slowly and are usually know in advance -Occur slowly and can be predicted in most instances Trend 1: Increasing Number of Women in the Workforce -Women have also left traditional, non-professional occupations and now work in management,law, engineering and medical fields -Women accounted for 70% of total employmentgrowth in Canda in the last two decades Trend 2: Shift Toward Knowledge Workers -Shift from employmentin primary and extractiveindustries to service, technical and professional jobs -Service industry such as education, health care, tourism, trade and public administration -Service industry such as education, health care, tourism, trade and public administration make significant contributions to our national wealth today -All services combined is about 75% of GDP Workforcecan be divided into two groups Data workers: Members of occupations that use, transmit or manipulate symbolic information created by knowledge workers Knowledge Workers: membersof occupations generating, processing, analyzing or synthesizing ideas and information Trend 3: Educational Attainment of Workers Educational Attainment- Highest educational level attained by an individual worker, employee group, or population -has been increasing in Canada EmployeeSkills defined by the Corporate Council on Education -basic academic skills- communication,thinking, learning -personal management-positive attitudes and behaviours, accept responsibility -teamwork Trend 4: Employment of Older Workers Old Age Crisis- Refers to the social (health care) and organizational (new workplace economics) challenges caused by aging of population Trend 5- More Part-Time, Contract, and Contingent Workers -More Part-Timeworkers -More contract workers - freelancers (self-employed,temporary)who are not part of the regular workforce Cultural Challenges -facing a firm's decision makers because of cultural differences among employeesor changes in core cultural or social values occurring at the larger societal level Work Related Attitudes Attitudes toward work- variety of work-relatedassumptions and values include the role of work in a person's life and the role of women and diverse groups in organizations Gen X- Are not adverse to hard work, premium on work-life balance and like to be active participants in decision making Canadian firms instituting code of ethics for their employees Ethnic Diversity Cultural Mosaic- Canadian ideal of encouraging each ethnic, racial, and social group to maintain its own cultural heritage, forming a national mosaic of different cultures Attitudes Toward Governments -basic assumptions about the role of governmentin business and society,including the desirability of welfare state with key interventionistrole for the government Objectives of Human Resource Management HR managementaims to improve the productive contribution of individuals while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individual employeeobjectives HRD (Human Resource Department)carry out several commonactivities: -assist the organization to attract the right quality and number of employees -orient new employeesto the organization and place them in their job positions -etc HRM attempts to achieve three key objectives -organizational -organizational -societal -employee Organizational Objectives -an organization's short- and long-term goals that the HR department aims to achieve -help an organization to identify the right quality, type and number of employees -resources are wasted when the HRD is moreor less sophisticated than the organization demands -cost benefit-analysis and systematicprogram reviews are vital to achieve this gal Societal Objectives -social priorities that HR department targets while setting own objectivesand strategies Employee Objectives -Goals set by HR department to assist employeesto achieve personal goals that will enhance their contribution to the organization -HR strategies should assist employeesin achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contributions to the organization Strategic Human Resource Management -formed at three levels: corporate,business, functional Strategic HRM- integrating HRM strategies and systemsto achieve overall mission, strategies, and success of the firm while meeting needs of employeeand other stakeholders. Steps in Strategic HRM 1) EnvironmentalAnalysis 2) Organizational Mission and Goals Analysis: Mission statement- Statementoutlining the purpose, long-term objectives,and activitiesthe organization will pursue and the course for the future 3) Analysis of Organizational Strengths and Culture Organization Character- product of all of an organization's features- people, objectives, technology,size, unions, policies, successes, and failures 4) Analysis of Organizational Strategies -Cost leadership- lower costs of operations and prices for products -differentiation - distinct product -focus - focusing on the needs of a specific segment of the total market 5) Choice and Implementationof HR Strategies Focus on five major groups of activities 1) Planning HR 2) Attracting HR 3) Placing, Developing,and Evaluating HR 4) MotivatingEmployees 5) Maintain high performance Service Role of the HR Department Staff Authority- Authority to advise, but not to direct, others Line Authority- authority to make decisions about production, performance and people Functional Authority - Authority that allows staff experts to make decisions and take actions normally reserved for line managers Chapter 12- Diversity Management Saturday, February 23, 2013 3:20 PM Old Boys' Network- set of informal relationships among male managers providing increased career advancementopportunities for men and reinforcing a male culture Glass Ceiling- Invisible, but real obstructions to career advancementof women and people of visible minorities, resulting in frustration, career dissatisfaction and increased turnover Workplace diversity- includes important human characteristicsthat influence employeevalues, their perceptions of self and others, behaviours, and interpretationsof events Core Dimensions of Diversity-age, ethnicity and culture, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, and capabilities Secondary Dimensions of Diversity-education, status language, and income levels Managing Diversity-ability to manage individual employeeswith different cultural values and lead teams made up of diverse employees -Effective management -Includes all types of differences and not simply obvious ones -organization culture and working environments Strategic Importance of Diversity Management -Changing Workforce -Importance of Human Capital -Diversityas a CompetitiveAdvantage -Paradigm Shift- shared mindset that reflects a fundamental way of thinking and understanding the world around us. Fundamental chance in a paradigm. Traditional -Organizational success is linked to standardization -Diversityis a cost -Rules and policies are to be shaped by senior executives -Emphasis on "masculine" values of competitiveness,aggressiveness, and individually -Change employeebehaviours and attitudes to suit the organization's culture New -Success is linked to individual's contribution -Diversityis a competitiveadvantage -Rules and policies are to be shaped to satisfy the customer and the employee -Recognition that "feminine" values of openness, flexibility and relationship orientation are equally important for organizational success -Modify organizational culture to suit the needs of the employees -Increase role of work teams Steps in Diversity Management 1) Identify Ideal Future State 2) Analyze Present Systems and Procedures Cultural Norms- Values and norms that determinebehaviours of individuals and groups in different cultures 3) Change Systems,Procedures,and Practices Five factors are particularly critical -Senior ManagementCommitment -Establishment of a DiversityCommittee -Establishment of a DiversityCommittee -Education and Retraining -Wide Communicationof Changes -Evaluation of Results and Follow-up -DiversityAudits- Audits to uncover underlying dimensions, causes, interdependencies, and progress to date on diversity managementmatters Current Industry Practices -DiversityTraining Programs -Training programs aimed at importing new skills to motivateand manage a diverse workforce -Two types of training -Awareness Training- training employeesto develop their understanding of the need to manage and value diversity -Skill-building training- training employeesin interpersonal skills to correctly respond to cultural differences at the workplace -Mentoring Programs -programs encouraging members of disadvantaged groups to work with a senior manager who acts like a friend and guide in achieving career success -Alternative Work Arrangements -Nontraditional work arrangements that provide more flexibility to employees,while meeting organizational goals -Apprenticeships -A form of on-the-job training in which young people learn a trade from an experience person -Support Groups -Groups of employeeswho provide emotionalsupport to a new employeewho shares a commonattribute with the group -CommunicationStandards -Formal protocols for internal communicationswithin an organization to eliminate gender, racial, age, or other biases in communications Chapter 2- Job Analysis and Design Thursday, February 21, 2013 3:21 PM  Decision making process – human resource department needs accurate information about a variety of aspects of the job in question.  HR specialists discover the actual characteristics that presently exist in each job.  Job analysis is a systematicstudy of a job to discover its specifications,skill requirements,and so on, for wage-setting, recruitment, training, or job-simplification purposes.  Jobs – core of every organization. They are to be designed well and done right  HR departmentmust have a clear understanding of the jobs found throughout the organization.  A job consists of a group of related activitiesand duties.  A collectionof tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual employeeis called a position.  Large organizations store informationon various jobs using human resource information system (HRIS) – permits easy retrieval of relevant job details, also providing a variety of informationabout the job, jobholders, and past performancestandards. Phase 1: Preparation for Job Analysis (three key activities performed within this stage) Step 1: Familiarization with the Organization and its Jobs  Having an awareness of an organization’s objectives,strategies, structure, inputs (people, materials, and procedures), and desired outcomes.  Unionized organizations – job analysis steps also have to meetvarious provisions of the collective agreement b/w the managementand union  Studying industry and governmentreports about the jobs to be analyzed. Step 2: Determine Users of Job Analysis Information  Job analysis may be done to eliminate discrimination against specific employeegroups or assist in job redesign.  It aids other objectivessuch as identifying non-traditional career paths for employees.  Details collected during a job analysis are influenced by the objective of the study; hence it is crucial to define the objectivesearly on. Step 3: Identify Jobs to be Analyzed  Resource and time constraints often preclude organizations from conducting job analyses.  Targets of job analyses – jobs that are critical to the success of an organization; jobs that are difficult to lean or perform; jobs in which the firm continuously hires new employees;or jobs that exclude membersof the protectedclasses.  Should be analyzed if new technology or an altered environmentaffects how the job has been performed.  Senior managementand all key supervisors of the firm should be consulted before selecting jobs for the in-depth analysis.  Type, number, and geographical dispersion of the jobs selected for analysis also influence the choice of data collected method. Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Information (three interrelated activities) Step 4: Determine Sources of Job Data  Direct source of informationabout a job is the job incumbent, various other sources – both human  Direct source of informationabout a job is the job incumbent, various other sources – both human and nonhuman – may be used for this purpose.  Materials may be published within magazines provide informationabout how jobs are performed in other organizations and settings – valuable establishing performance standards and benchmarks for quality.  Internet is also a good source of information about different types of jobs.  Incumbents, supervisors, colleagues – most valid information. Step 5: Data Collection Instrument Design  Studying jobs, analysts must make checklists called a job analysis schedule which seeks to collect information about jobs in a uniform manner. o Uncovering duties, responsibilities, human abilities, and performancestandards of the jobs investigated.  Information important when collecting from human sources and nonhuman sources  Use the same questionnaire on similar jobs.  Uniformity – hard to maintain in large organizations; analysts study similar jobs in different departments, only a uniform questionnaire results in usable data.  Standardized forms of a job analysis attemptto measure the following items: o Status and identification. Status - whether the job is exempt from overtimelaws. Identification – information includes job title, division, and title of supervisor(s),and sometimesa unique job identification number. – no information of this, relying on outdated info. o Duties and responsibilities.Job analysis explains the purpose, accomplishmentand how the job is performed. – additional questions are responsibility for decision making, controlling, organizing, planning and other managementfunctions. o Human characteristicsand working conditions. need to uncover the particular skills, abilities, training, education, experience, and other characteristics that jobholders need. Working environment– skills, training, knowledge and job design. o Performance standards. Information about job standards, used to evaluate performance. – collected on jobs with objectivestandards of performance. o Functional job analysis (FJA). FJA classifies tasks using three functional scaled related to people, data, and things. Each functional scale ranks behaviours according to complexity. Indicates the level at which the employeeis operating for each of the three categories. o Occupational Information Network (O*NET). U.S. department of labour used this to classify jobs and job skills, but changing technology required a diff approach. o Fleishman Job Analysis (F-JAS). A well-researched job analysis method based on a list of 52 cognitive, psychomotor,physical, and sensory abilities. o Position AnalysisQuestionnaire (PAQ). Designed to apply to all types of jobs, offers an even more quantitative and finely tuned description of jobs than the F-JAS. o CriticalIncident Method (CIM). Duties and responsibilities are important aspects of a job analysis, and the CIM is ideally suited for this purpose b/c it focuses on critical job behaviours. – examples of behaviours to do the job effectivelyand the way and the means to do it. Step 6: Choice of Method for Data Collection  Interviews approach to collecting job-and performance-relatedinformationby a face-to-face meeting with jobholder, typically using a standardized questionnaire. o Jobholders and supervisors are interviewed. o Talks with a limited number of workers than interviewssupervisors. o Guidelines in conducting interviews:  Conducted with job incumbents and others who have knowledge of the job.  Interviewersestablish rapport with the intervieweebefore getting into the main theme.  Structured a checklist of questions  Respondent not performing routine duties – job incumbent should be asked to list all duties.  Info collected be reviewed and verified by both the intervieweeand immediate supervisor supervisor o Mailed Questionnaires. Surveying employeesusing a mailed questionnaire – standardized questionnaires used to survey employeesto collect information about jobs, working conditions, and other performance-relatedinformation. o Employee Log. A thi
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