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mhr chp 6.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Al- Karim Samnani

March 7, 2013 Chapter 6: Selection Selection Process  A series of specific steps used by an employer to decide which recruits should be hired o Begins when recruits apply for employment and ends with the hiring decision o Involves matching the employment needs of the applicant and the organization o Recruitment ends when applications are received o Selection ends when hiring decision is made o Matching the needs of the employer and employee (e.g. janitor helps the organization achieve its goals by keeping it clean. Every job role helps the organization meet its needs) o When people are overqualified  Organization may realize that the person is only asking for a job to meet their short-term needs and not career needs o Some organizations do not have many growth opportunities  People who are looking to grow in a company that has no opportunities Employment Interviews  Formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability o Allows a personal impression o Resume portrays a different person than whom they are o Opportunity to sell a job to a candidate (e.g. Google offering free lunch to employees a potential sell. Because most people coming in for an interview already work another job, you need to sell the organization so that people will leave their current job) o Provides opportunity to answer the candidate’s questions o Effective public relations tool  Concerns about reliability and validity o Reliability:  More than one person involved in interview.  Consistency of evaluations by the raters  High reliability = consistency o Valiidty  Assign a score after every interview to every interviewee  Correlation between score and job performance means there is a high validity.  May be one-to-one, panel, or group o One to One o Panel  Horizontal set up of interviewers, 1 person asks questioperson asks question etc. o Group Interview  Less structured  Questions arise depend on flow of interview ******Types of Interviews  Unstructured o Interviews using few if any planned questions o Enables the interviewer to pursue, in depth, the applicant’s responses o Questions are never planned before interview o Informal conversation o The most common form used o Least validity o These are not a good indicator of future performance o Why use them?  Most comfortable  Like a conversation  Structured o Rely on a predetermined checklist of questions o Questions are asked of every applicant o May be behaviourally-oriented (or not) o Sequence of questions that are followed o Predetermined o Goal is to have consistency among all interviewees  Mixed o This interview format is a combination of structured and unstructured interviews o Questions are planned and unplanned o Advantages of both structured and unstructured  Behaviourally- Oriented o Behavioural description--past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour o Situational--attempts to assess applicant’s likely future response to specific situations o Highest validity o Best predictor of future performance  Behavioural  How have you dealt with this?  Asking them when you’ve been in this situation before how did you respond?  Situational  How would you deal with this if this were to happen?  Stress Producing o Use of a series of harsh, rapid-fire questions to upset the applicant and learn how the applicant reacts under stress o How does interviewee respond where we’ve created a stressful situation (e.g. angry customer)  Computer Assisted o Use of computers to electronically profile job candidates and screen new hires o May potentially increase reliability (by making the interviews uniform) o Some controversy exists regarding use of this type of interview o Interview questions generated by a computer o Increase reliability since everyone is asked the same questions o Controversy  How long they took to answer questions  Who answered the questions (e.g. friend in field)  Video Interviewing o Interviews that use solicited videos of a candidate’s answers to provided questions o Company sends a set of questions, interviewee creates a video with answers that they send back Interview Process 1.) Interview Preparation  Resume and cover letter reviewed and looked at  Tell me about yourself, to make the interviewee more comfortable 2.) Creation of Rapport 3.) Information Exchange  Between interviewer and interviewee 4.) Termination  Interviewee is not a fit for the company 5.) Evaluation Interviewer Errors  Halo effect o Use of limited information about candidates to bias interviewer’s evaluation o Features/ attributes to shape a person (e.g. weak handshake taken as lack of confidence)  Leading questions o Communicating the desired answer o People saying what the interviewer wants to hear  Stereotypes o Harbouring prejudice or exhibiting personal bias o Women = maternity leave = less committed to the company  Interviewer domination o Using the interview to oversell, brag, etc. o Over sell opportunity o We want what seems more hard to get  May be due to attempting to cover job-related weaknesses or nervousness o Exposing weakness by covering too much (e.g. minimum 3 year experience required but you only have 1 year)  Typical errors include: o Playing games e.g. acting nonchalant o Talking too much o Boasting o Not listening o Being unprepared Evaluating the Selection  Quality and productivity of the workforce hired  Costs incurred at a level appropriate to the organization  Is your process doing what its supposed to do?  Correlation between performance and interview process March 14, 2013 Performance Management and Training and Development Performance Management  Performance objectives o Broader strategic objectives (e.g., high sales, customer satisfaction, low costs, etc.) o Strategic objectives: high sales focus o Customer satisfaction: happy customers o Low costs: compete on low costs  Performance goals o Specific desired targets (e.g., increase sales by 10%) o Aiming for 90% customer satisfaction on surveys to improve customer services  Performance measurement o Appropriate process in place to measure performance o Most jobs don’t have numbers assosicated with their jobs o We need to design measures to provide indicators of employee performance  Output measures o Appropriate measures to assess performance o Employees actual performance o We use output measures we’ve already decided on  Outcome measures o Compare output to performance goals o Comparison between performance goals and actual output  Performance Management: how do we manage performance? What can we do to manage performance?  Strategic Talent Management: how can we help employees perform to their full potential? Performance Appraisals  Employees tend to be dissatisfied with the appraisal process  Appraisals are often viewed as an administrative burden  Doesn’t always mean higher pay  Good Appraisal  Increase scores of those who have done well  Admin burden  Lots of paperwork  Pointless if people are not rewarded/ punished after performance reviews **************Uses of Performance Appraisal (name the HR function associated with it)  Performance improvement (performance management) o How can performance be improved next year  Compensation adjustments (compensation) o Depending on ranking after appraisal give associated % increase in pay o Good performance results in pay increase  Placement decisions (human resource planning) o Transfer, demotion, promotion o Indicated good performance by appraisal and give performance scores  Training & development needs (training and development) o Employee needs to work on areas for training based on employee weakness indicated on appraisal  Career planning & development (human resource planning) o It is hard for employee to initiate a conversation about wanting to become a manager in current place of employment. So when they are ready to be promoted, they often apply for jobs in other organizations.  Identify deficiencies in staffing process (selection) o Most employees are not performing well on certain criteria of job performance  Detect informational inaccuracies (job design) o Look for consistency  Diagnose job design errors (job design)  Avoid discrimination (none) o Probation period passes o You back of your decision to let go of an employee solely based on bad performance  Uncover external challenges (none) o Benefits packages o Reasons for poor performance Key Elements  Performance measures and criteria  Performance appraisal interview o Supervisor can talk to employee about performance  Employee feedback o You failed to meet expectations but here’s what you can do  Employee records and HR decisions  Human Performance Appraisal Systems  Job-related o System evaluates critical behaviours that constitute job success o Related to job only  Practical o Understood and relatively simple o Easy to understand  Performance standards o Relates to the desired results of each job (i.e., benchmarks) o Set quotas for sales  Performance measures o Reports on critical behaviours (i.e., actual ratings) o Report on actual results Rater Biases 1. Halo Effect  Using one information to generalize that person as a whole 2. Error of Central Tendency  Tend to stick around the middle 3. Leniency & Strictness Bias 4. Personal Prejudice 5. Recency Effect  Last 3 months leading up to performance review is what generalizes performance over the year Characteristics for Effectiveness 1. Validity  The more job related the performance appraisal is 2. Reliability  Consistency of rating 3. Input into system development  How can they get the most out of Performance Appraisal 4. Acceptable standards 5. Acceptable goals  Goals need to be realistic 6. Control of standards  Standards need to be fair (e.g. winter months ice cream sales wont be the same as the summer) 7. Frequency of feedback  We should tell employees when they mess up, not just during performance appraisals 8. Rater training 9. Ratee training 10. Input into interview process 11. Appraisal consequences  Compensation adjustments 12. Different sources(raters)  Different raters, more managers doing the Performance appraisals Past-Oriented Noncomparative  Rating scale o Oldest and most widely used method o Subjective i.e. based on the rater’s opinion o Responses may be given numerical values o E.g. seminar 6 assignment, rate 1-7  Critical Incident o Rater records performance statements o Describes very effective/ineffective behaviour o How did the employee overcome the incident  Behaviorally- Anchored o Performance-related categories o Cites specific behaviours  Test & Observations o Appraisal based upon a test o Test may be pen & pencil or demonstration o Comparative of employees against eachother  Ranking Method o Employees ranked from best to worst o Subject to halo and recency effects o Ranked high to low  Forced Distribution o Categories are designed o Employees assigned to categories “high performing” “low performing” o 20 – 70 – 10 rule o 20 (high performers) 70 (Middle performers) 10 (low performer) o Low performers must leave the organizations within the year, new people are brought in o Method to filter out the weak Future Oriented Methods  Self- Appraisals o Useful to further self-development o Can be used with any evaluation approach o People more willing to address their own issues to help further themselves  Management-by-Objectives o Employee and supervisor jointly establish goals o Employee is later evaluated on the objectives o Set goals with manager for the year o Year later see if goals were met  Assessment Center o Usually used to evaluate future potential o Multiple types of evaluation and raters o Usually used for high-potential managers o Used to enhance leadership skills Other Development  360-degree performance appraisal o In line with the trend toward flatter organizations o Combination of perspectives e.g. peer, self, supervisor, subordinate o Performance appraisal done by team members, customers, self, to evaluate performance  Balanced scorecard o Combines performance measures of the total organization o Takes each employees performance and evaluate against criteria Evaluation Interviews  Performance review sessions that give employees feedback about their past performance or future potential Effective Evaluation Interviews (sandwich negative comments)  Emphasize positive aspects of employee performance  Tell each employee the evaluation session is to improve performance not to discipline  Conduct the performance review session in private without interruptions  Review performance formally at least annually  Make criticisms specific, not general and vague  Focus criticisms on performance, not on personality  Stay calm and do not argue with the person being evaluated  Identify specific actions to improve performance  Emphasize willingness to assist the employee’s efforts to improve performance  End the evaluation by stressing positive aspects and reviewing plans to improve Training and Development Training refers to the formal and planned efforts enacted by the organization to help employees acquire the knowledge, skills and abilities required to improve their performance in their jobs. Development on the other hand has a long-term focus. It represents the organization’s efforts to help employees gain the SKAs required to perform future job responsibilities. Benefits of Training and Development  Organization: o Strategy, effectiveness, improved performance, employee recruitment and retention o Keeping people in the company o More applicants  Employees: o Intrinsic benefits  Personal, internal, non-tanglible (e.g. MBA company paying) o Extrinsic benefits  Ability to put MBA on resume  Society: o We have a skilled and educated population, higher standards of living **************Instructional System Design (know the three steps)  Model of Training Design  Three Steps: 1. Needs Analysis/ Assessment  Most important step – systematic process for uncovering deficiencies within the organization and what is causing them  Involves:  Identify the concern (performance gap): employees not meeting goals  Is it important? YES! Trouble with sales program software compare performance of good software users to people who are bad. $10,000 lost due to bad sales of unfamiliar users.  Consult stakeholders: find out from IT to see if it can become more user friendly  Collect data  Assessing the needs of a group of employees  Identify deficiencies and find out what caused them4 Data Collections  Problem with software in one department, find out from other departments to see if they are having trouble too. So do a combined training.  Three levels: o Organization analysis  Where is the training needed? o Task/Job analysis  What KSAOs are required to perform the job effectively o Person analysis (individual level)  Who needs to be trained?  Observation, questionnaires, interviews 2. Training Design  Involves several steps:  Determine/write the training objectives  Decide on whether to purchase or design  Determine the content  Use of software is giving problems  Rather than covering entire software figure out which is giving people problems  Determine the methods 3. Training Methods  On the job training (OJT)  Structured (performance aids) o powerpoint  Job rotation o To help them perform their jobs better they need to see the link between all jobs  Apprenticeships  Coaching o How can you do better on your job  Mentoring o Assigned to a mentor for when you have challenges  Off the job  Lectures  Discussions  Case studies and incidents  Role plays  Simulations and games Orientation  Introduces the new employee to their job, their co-workers and the organization as a whole  Facilitates integration of new employees  Many purposes: o Increases productivity, reduces turnover, reduces anxiety, improves morale, develops realistic expectations Orientation Topics  Organizational issues o History, names & titles, layout of physical facility, product/service, Policies, discipline, safety  Employee benefits o Pay, vacations, breaks, benefits, services, programs, counselling  Introduction o To supervisor, co-workers, trainers  Job duties o Job overview, tasks, safety, objectives, relationship to other jobs Compensation Management Compensation  Cash and non-cash rewards employees receive in exch
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