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Lecture 8

MHR 741 Lecture 8: CHAPTER 8

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Human Resources
MHR 741
Genevieve Farrell

CHAPTER 8 Empowerment: provide freedom for people to do what they want to do (pull), rather than getting them to do what you want them to do (push) - Removes controls, constraints and boundaries - Energizes and provides intrinsic encouragement - Empowered employees are more productive, satisfied, innovative and create better higher quality products and services o Empowerment also helps the organization stay flexible and adapt to changes Outcomes of Stress • Centralization - Decision-making is pulled toward the top of the organization. Less power is shared. • Threat-rigidity response - Conservative, self-protective behaviors predominate. Old habits are relied upon. Change is resisted. • Loss of innovativeness -Trial and error learning stops. Low tolerance for risk and creativity occurs. • Decreasing morale - In-fighting and a mean mood permeate the organization. It isn’t fun. • Politicized environment - Special interest groups organize and become vocal. Everything is negotiated. • Loss of trust - Leaders lose the confidence of subordinates. Distrust predominates among employees. • Increased conflict - Infighting and competition occur. Self-centeredness predominates over the good of the organization. • Restricted communication - Only good news is passed upward. Information is not widely shared and is held close to the vest. • Lack of teamwork - Individualism and disconnectedness inhibit teamwork. Lack of coordination occurs. • Loss of loyalty - Commitment to the organization and to the leader erodes. Focus is on defending oneself. • Scapegoating leaders - Leadership anemia occurs as leaders are criticized, priorities become less clear, and a siege mentality occurs. • Short-term perspective - A crisis mentality is adopted. Long-term planning and flexibility are avoided. Empowerment helps people! - Helps develop self-confidence - Helps overcome feelings of powerlessness - Energizes people to take action - Creates intrinsic motivation - Enhances self-image - Feel more capable Power - External source - Few people have it - The capacity to have others do what you want - To get more power implies taking it away from someone else - Leads to competition Empowerment - Internal source - Everyone can have it - The capacity to have others do what they want - To get more empowerment does not affect how much others have - Leads to cooperation 5 Dimensions of Empowerment - Self efficacy o A sense of personal competence o The feeling that they possess the capability and competence to perform a task successfully - Self-determination o A sense of personal choice o Feelings of having a choice o Having choices about the methods used to accomplish a task, the amount of effort to be expended, the pace of work and the time frame in which it is to be accomplished - Personal consequences o A sense of having impact o Empowered people have a sense that when they act, they can produce a result o Related to internal locus of control - Meaningfulness o A sense of value in activity o Empowered people have a sense of meaning ▪ They value the purpose of goals of the activity in which they are engaged - Trust o A sense of security o Empowered people have a sense of trust ▪ They are confident that they will be treated fairly and equitably Developing Empowerment 1. Articulate a clear vision and goals - Creating an environment in which individuals can feel empowered requires that they be guided by a clearly articulated vision of where the organization is going and how they can contribute as individuals - Create a picture of a desired future - Identify actions that will lead to a vision - Establish SMART goals o Specific, measurable, aligned, realistic, timely 2. Provide opportunities to foster personal mastery - Providing people with the opportunity to accomplish successfully more difficult tasks that eventually lead to the accomplishment of desirable goals - Assign simple tasks before difficult ones - Breaking apart large tasks and assign one at a time - Highlight and celebrate small wins 3. Model the correct behaviour - Demonstrate successful task accomplishment point out other people who have succeeded - Facilitate interaction with other role models - Find a coach - Establish a mentor relationship 4. Provide support - Managers should praise, encourage, express approval for and reassure employees - Send letters of notes of praise to family members and coworkers - Foster informal social activities to build cohesion - Supervise less closely and provide time-slack - Hold recognition ceremonies 5. Create emotional arousal - Foster activities to encourage friendshi
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