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ITM 100 (271)
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Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Ron Babin

Value Chain Value Chain is a connected series of activities each of which adds value or supports the addition value to the firms goods or services and it has five core componentsInbound Logisticsincludesthe receiving warehousing and inventory control of raw materials to create goods and servicesOperationsare the value creatingand often proprietary activities that transform the raw input in to the final outputOutbound Logisticsare the activities required to get the finished product to the customers includes packaging warehousing and order fulfillmentMarketing and sales are all the activities associated with getting buyers to purchase the product including the distributors retailersor online channels marketing advertising and pricing Serviceare those that maintain and enhance the product value including customer support repair services and warranty and recallMoney People and Technology Exampleo The Beer Store o Ryerson University o Purchasing an Apple iPod Value Chain can be further classified in to primary and secondary activities Primary Activitiesrelated to the productions and distribution of the organization and its customers Support activitiesthat an organizations conducts to support the creation of business value by the primary activitiesPorter identified four critical support activities 1 Firm infrastructurewhich we call administration Finance Accounting DSS 2 Technology development Technology 3 Human Resource Management 4 ProcurementInformations Systems that Support Business ActivitiesFunctional Information Systemsthey focus on the activities of the functional departments to improve its efficiency and effectivenessAccounting ISTypically dedicated to the reporting of a firms financial health Relies on input from transaction processing system TPS since it must record all transaction dataProvides both internal and external reports of a companys financial statusMarketing ISSupports marketing research and decision making in developing and distributing products and servicesIncludes input from TPS strategic plans and corporate policies and external sources Includes marketing research outputs to support the four Ps of marketing product development pricing decisions promotion and product placement Human Resources ISSupports activities related to managing the organizations employees Includes input from TPS strategic plans and corporate policies and external sources Supports human resources planning recruiting and hiring Enables administration of salaries benefits and trainingFinancial ISProvides financial information to the organizations financial managers Includes both internal input itemsTPS financial objectives and project needsand external input itemscompetitor and environmental data Generates both internal and external audits supports management of fundsManufacturing ISSupports manufacturing processes and activities Includes input from TPS strategic plans and corporate policies and external sources Uses outputs primarily for controlling processes design and engineering control of inventory resource planning and computeraided manufacturingWork Management Systems Work Flowrepresents the steps organizational resources input and output data and tools needed to complete a business process Workflow management system WMS supports activities that several departments of the organization may carry out A WMS typically provides tools for modeling the steps of the processBenefitsLess misplaced or stalled work and Improves efficiency and qualityManager can focus more time on decision making than on tracking workTransaction Processing Systems Transactionis an exchange of goods or services between two or more parties that creates a relationship between the parties Transaction processing systems TPS enable transaction activities and capture the key data created by the transaction Example An individual using an ATM is a transaction between the individual and an organizationA transaction is a unit of work that has the following characteristics known as ACID AtomicityA transaction must be unequivocally completed If an error causes the transaction to fail then the entire transaction to that point should be undone and the data reset to its previous state eg when a sale is voided or reversed ConsistencyAll unchanging properties of data must be preserved This means that the data captured by the transaction must fit within the rules of data storage IsolationEach transaction should execute independently of other transactions that may occur at the same time on the system DurabilityThe characteristics of a completed transaction should be permanentHelps organizations ensure that the activities of any one transaction all succeed or fail as a groupTSP brings together the common components of IT data storage data processing data capture and software Pg 126127
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