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Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Ron Babin

Tech Guide BThe Electronics of Hardware A transistor is a very small device made out of semiconductor material that acts as a switch to control electronic signalsMicroprocessor chips carry out many different processing operations within a computer including handling input and output as well as the actual conversion of data into information Over time the number of transistors on a microprocessor chip has expanded resulting in increasingly powerful computersMemory chips also use transistors to store data within the computer As with microprocessor chips the amount of internal memory stored on chips has also risen dramatically as more transistors are built into the memory chipsHow Transistors Work You can represent the two states of a transistor using binary mathematics which uses ones on and zeros off referred as a digital data Character Encoding Binary codes represent letters and numbers through character encoding Character encoding permits a specific combination of bits to represent each characterStandard ASCIIThe oldest encoding system used on mainframe computers is the Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBCDIC which is an eightbit coding system For personal computers the first encoding system was the Standard ASCII American Standard Code for Information InterchangeMachine Instructions Hardware devices such as a computer or PDA execute instructions as a sequence of binary strings known as machine instructions The sequence used to represent a specific instruction is assigned in a similar manner as that used to assign binary sequences to character data eg the ASCII codePROCESSING HARDWAREThe CPU works together with memory to control the execution of all instructions and the processing of all data The CPU is located on the systems motherboard the main circuit board in an electronic device The motherboard contains the microprocessor as well as other chips and circuits The motherboard and CPU chip are found in the system unit the box that we often think of as the computer when we look at it The CPU consists of several componentsControl Unit CUPerforms the following four basic functions fetch de code execute and store One time through each of these tasks in a sequence is called a cycleArithmetic Logic Unit ALUExecutes mathematical and logic calculations Logic calculations make comparisons between values
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