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Lecture

ITM NOTES Class 1-5

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Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 100
Professor
Deb Fels
Semester
Fall

Description
ITM Class 1 Information Systems Today Gordon Moore/Moores Law- Co-founder of Intel/Computing power roughly doubles every 18 months Information System- People, Process, and Information & Technology Types of IS Found in Business There are a number of types of IS that are widely used in creating business value: Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems Transaction Processing Systems What do they do? Capture and process transactions to make them available to the organization How does this create business value? It enables a business to efficiently and accurately track the transactions that are at the heart of all business activities. Captured transaction data can then be used to support decision making Management Information Systems What do they do? Provide timely information to decision makers through processing and reporting features How does this create business value? Timely reporting can enable managers to monitor critical processes and avoid costly mistakes Decision Support Systems o What do they do? Provide analytical and visualization tools to support and enhance decision making o How does this create business value? It enables decision makers to make decisions based on data and to discover new business opportunities through the use of tools provided by the IS Enterprise Resource Planning Systems What do they do? Integrate and standardize processes and centralize and standardize the storage and management of data How does this create business value? This can reduce costs associated with duplication of processes and effort. It can also reduce decision-making mistakes made because of multiple versions of the same data, information, and knowledge Customer Relationship Management Systems o What do they do? Integrate data collection, transformation, storage, and analysis of customer transaction data, including purchases, service requests, and other forms of customer contact o How does this create business value? This greatly increases understanding of customers purchasing and service behaviours and needs. It facilitates timely and proactive management of customers ITM Class 2 How businesses use Information Systems Business Processes and Information Systems Business processes The manner in which work is organized, coordinated, and focused to produce a valuable product or service Every business is a collection of business processes Workflows of material, information, knowledge Sets of activities, steps May be tied to functional area or be cross-functional Information technology enhances business processes increase efficiency of existing processes enable new processes that can transform the business Businesses: Can be seen as collection of business processes Examples of functional business processes Manufacturing and production Assembling the product Sales and marketing Identifying customers Finance and accounting Creating financial statements Human resources Hiring employees Information technology enhances business processes in two main ways: 1. Increasing efficiency of existing processes Automating steps that were manual 2. Enabling entirely new processes that are capable of transforming the businesses Change flow of information Replace sequential steps with parallel steps Eliminate delays in decision making Types of Information Systems Transaction processing systems Perform and record daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business Examples: sales order entry, payroll, shipping Allow managers to monitor status of operations and relations with external environment Serve operational levels Serve predefined, structured goals and decision making Must pass ACID test (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) Business Intelligence Systems for Decision Support Support middle management with monitoring, controlling, decision making, and administrative activities Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Support Systems (ESS) Management information systems Serve middle management Provide reports on firms current performance, based on data from TPS Provide answers to routine questions with predefined procedure for answering them Typically have little analytic capability Decision support systems Serve middle management Support nonroutine decision making Example: What is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled? Often use external information as well as information from TPS and MIS Model driven DSS E.g., Voyage-estimating systems Data driven DSS E.g., Intrawests marketing analysis systems Systems for Linking the Enterprise Enterprise applications Enterprise systems (ERP) Supply Chain Management Systems (SCM) Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM) Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) Intranets and Extranets Enterprise systems Also known as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems Collect data from different functions and store data in single central data repository Resolve problem of fragmented, redundant data Enable: Coordination of daily activities Efficient response to customer orders Use of valuable information for improved management decision making Supply chain management (SCM) systems Manage firms relationships with suppliers Interorganizational systems Share information about Orders, production, inventory levels, delivery of products and services Goal: Right amount of products to destination with least amount of time and lowest cost
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