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ITM 102 (371)
Lecture

Chapter 8

5 Pages
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Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
Franklyn Prescod

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Description
Chapter 8 Why systems are vulnerable – Accessibility of networks – Hardware problems (breakdowns, configuration errors, damage from improper use or crime) – Software problems (programming errors, installation errors, unauthorized changes) – Disasters – Use of networks/computers outside of firm’s control – Loss and theft of portable devices Internet vulnerabilities • Network open to anyone • Size of Internet means abuses can have wide impact • Use of fixed Internet addresses with cable or DSL modems creates fixed targets hackers • Unencrypted VOIP • E-mail, P2P, IM • Interception • Attachments with malicious software • Transmitting trade secrets Wireless security challenges • Radio frequency bands easy to scan • SSIDs (service set identifiers) • Identify access points • Broadcast multiple times • War driving • Eavesdroppers drive by buildings and try to detect SSID and gain access to network and resources • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) • Security standard for 802.11; use is optional • Uses shared password for both users and access point • Users often fail to implement WEP or stronger systems Malicious Software: Viruses, worms, Trojan Horses, and Spyware • Computer viruses: • Rogue software programs that attach to other programs in order to be executed, usually without user knowledge or permission • Deliver a “payload” • Can spread by email attachments Malicious Software (Malware) (continued) • Trojan Horse: • A software program that appears to be benign, but then does something unexpected • Often “transports” a virus into a computer system • Name is based on Greek ruse during Trojan war Malicious Software (Malware) (continued) • Worms: • Programs that copy themselves from one computer to another over networks • Can destroy data, programs, and halt operation of computer networks Hackers and Computer Crime • Hackers: individuals who attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer system • Cracker: a hacker with criminal intent • Cybervandalism: intentional disruption, defacement, or destruction of a Web site or system Spoofing • masquerading as someone else, or redirecting a Web link to an unintended address Sniffing • an eavesdropping program that monitors information travelling over a network Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks • Hackers flood a server with false communications in order to crash the system • Distributed DoS: uses numerous computers to crash the network • botnets Computer Crime: violation of criminal law that involves a knowledge of technology for perpetration, investigation, or prosecution • Identity theft • A crime in which the imposter obtains key pieces of personal information • Phishing • Setting up fake Web sites or sending email messages that look legitimate, and using them to ask for confidential data Computer Crime (continued) • Pharming • Redirects users to a bogus web site • Cli
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