Chapter 9 – Developing Information Systems.docx

7 Pages
64 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 102
Professor
Sam Lampropoulos
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9 – Developing Information Systems 9.1 Systems as Planned Organizational Change Systems Development and Organizational Change  The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation  Low risk / low return 1. Automation 2. Rationalization 3. Re-engineering 4. Paradigm Shift  One that follows quickly from early automation is rationalization of procedures o Frequently reveals new bottlenecks in production and makes the existing arrangement o Streamlining of standard operating procedures  Business process re-engineering (BPR) in which business processes are analyzed, simplified, and redesigned. o Rethink their business processes to improve speed, service and quality  Rationalizing procedures and redesigning business processes are limited to specific parts of a business  The most radical form of business change is called a paradigm shirt o Re-engineering often fail because extensive organizational change is so difficult to orchestrate Business Process Re-engineering  Work flow management is the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently  Business Process modeling  Quality Management  Change Management Steps in Effective Re-engineering  One of the most important strategic decisions that a firm can make is not deciding how to use information system to improve business process but rather understanding what business processes need improvement  Firms become vulnerable to competitors that may have discovered the right business model  Need to understand and measure the performance of existing processes as a baseline Process Improvement: Business Process Management Total Quality Management, and Six Sigma  BPR projects tend to be expensive and organizationally disruptive  Business Process Management (BPM) enables organizations to manage incremental process changes that are required simultaneously in many areas of the business  BPM includes work flow management, business process modeling, quality management, change management, and tools for recasting the firm’s business processes into a standardized form where they can be continually manipulated Total Quality Management and Six Sigma  Total Quality Management (TQM) to make quality the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization.  Holds that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself everyone is expect to contribute to the overall improvement of quality  Six Sigma is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities How Information systems support Quality Improvements  TQM typically focuses on making a series of continuous improvements rather than dramatic bursts of change.  Use statistical analysis tools to detect flaws in the execution of an existing process and make minor adjustments  Benchmarking consists of setting strict stands for products, services and other activities 9.2 Overview of System Development  The activates that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity are called systems development System Analysis  Establishing information requirements  The analysis of the problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system  System analysis would include a feasibility study to determine whether that solution was feasible or achievable from a financial, technical and organizational standpoint  Establish who needs what information, where, when and how Establishing Information Requirement  Most challenging task of the systems analyst is to define the specific information requirements that must be met by the system solution selected  Information requirements of a new system involve identifying who needs what information, where, when and how System Design  Describes how the system will meet information requirements  Shows how the system will fulfill those objective  System analysis describes what a system should do to meet information requirements  Deliver the functions identified during system analysis  When systems are used to strength the wrong business model, a business can become more efficient at doing what it should not do The Role of End Users  User information requirement drive the entire systems development effort  Must have sufficient control over the design process to ensure that the system reflects their business priorities and information needs Completing the Systems Development Process (pg. 288) Programming  System specifications that were prepared during the design stage are translated into software program code o Before programming is done  Do not do personal programming  Purchase software that meets the requirement for a new system from external sources such as software packages from a commercial software vendor Testing  Must be conducted to ascertain whether the system produces the right results  Unit testing or program testing consists of testing each program separately in the system.  System Testing tests the functioning of the information system as a whole  Acceptance testing provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production sitting  Test plan include all of the preparations for the series of tests we have just described Conversion  The process of changing from the old system to the new system  Parallel Strategy both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured  Direct cutover strategy introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization such as a single department or operating unit  Phased approach strategy introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by organization units. o Detailed documentation showing how the system works from both technical and end-user standpoints is finalized du
More Less

Related notes for ITM 102

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit