Chapter 9 – Developing Information Systems.docx

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Sam Lampropoulos

Chapter 9 – Developing Information Systems 9.1 Systems as Planned Organizational Change Systems Development and Organizational Change  The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation  Low risk / low return 1. Automation 2. Rationalization 3. Re-engineering 4. Paradigm Shift  One that follows quickly from early automation is rationalization of procedures o Frequently reveals new bottlenecks in production and makes the existing arrangement o Streamlining of standard operating procedures  Business process re-engineering (BPR) in which business processes are analyzed, simplified, and redesigned. o Rethink their business processes to improve speed, service and quality  Rationalizing procedures and redesigning business processes are limited to specific parts of a business  The most radical form of business change is called a paradigm shirt o Re-engineering often fail because extensive organizational change is so difficult to orchestrate Business Process Re-engineering  Work flow management is the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently  Business Process modeling  Quality Management  Change Management Steps in Effective Re-engineering  One of the most important strategic decisions that a firm can make is not deciding how to use information system to improve business process but rather understanding what business processes need improvement  Firms become vulnerable to competitors that may have discovered the right business model  Need to understand and measure the performance of existing processes as a baseline Process Improvement: Business Process Management Total Quality Management, and Six Sigma  BPR projects tend to be expensive and organizationally disruptive  Business Process Management (BPM) enables organizations to manage incremental process changes that are required simultaneously in many areas of the business  BPM includes work flow management, business process modeling, quality management, change management, and tools for recasting the firm’s business processes into a standardized form where they can be continually manipulated Total Quality Management and Six Sigma  Total Quality Management (TQM) to make quality the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization.  Holds that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself everyone is expect to contribute to the overall improvement of quality  Six Sigma is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities How Information systems support Quality Improvements  TQM typically focuses on making a series of continuous improvements rather than dramatic bursts of change.  Use statistical analysis tools to detect flaws in the execution of an existing process and make minor adjustments  Benchmarking consists of setting strict stands for products, services and other activities 9.2 Overview of System Development  The activates that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity are called systems development System Analysis  Establishing information requirements  The analysis of the problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system  System analysis would include a feasibility study to determine whether that solution was feasible or achievable from a financial, technical and organizational standpoint  Establish who needs what information, where, when and how Establishing Information Requirement  Most challenging task of the systems analyst is to define the specific information requirements that must be met by the system solution selected  Information requirements of a new system involve identifying who needs what information, where, when and how System Design  Describes how the system will meet information requirements  Shows how the system will fulfill those objective  System analysis describes what a system should do to meet information requirements  Deliver the functions identified during system analysis  When systems are used to strength the wrong business model, a business can become more efficient at doing what it should not do The Role of End Users  User information requirement drive the entire systems development effort  Must have sufficient control over the design process to ensure that the system reflects their business priorities and information needs Completing the Systems Development Process (pg. 288) Programming  System specifications that were prepared during the design stage are translated into software program code o Before programming is done  Do not do personal programming  Purchase software that meets the requirement for a new system from external sources such as software packages from a commercial software vendor Testing  Must be conducted to ascertain whether the system produces the right results  Unit testing or program testing consists of testing each program separately in the system.  System Testing tests the functioning of the information system as a whole  Acceptance testing provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production sitting  Test plan include all of the preparations for the series of tests we have just described Conversion  The process of changing from the old system to the new system  Parallel Strategy both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured  Direct cutover strategy introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization such as a single department or operating unit  Phased approach strategy introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by organization units. o Detailed documentation showing how the system works from both technical and end-user standpoints is finalized du
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