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Lecture 2

Week 2 - Bronze Age Civilizations.pdf

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Interior Design
IRH 110
Julia Scalzo

Week  2   Slide  2,  Slide  3   These are “Bronze Age” civilizations,   Aegean  World     not to be confused with “Greek” • Don’t  confuse  with  Greek   Cycladic • All  in  contact  with  one  another   Myceneanan • Disappeared.  Reappeared  in  the  19  century   • Can  not  read  their  writing  →  not  understand  their  culture  or   what  their  objects  wer e  for   • They  overlap  with  Mesopotamia  and  Egypt   • 3000  –  1600BC  Cycladic   • 1900  –  1375  BC  Minoan   • 1600  –  1100  BC  Mycenaean     Slide  5,  slide  6   Cycladic: Cycladic   Figure of a Woman ca. 2700   B.C.ther Cycladic Figurines • No  voluptuous  compared  with  Venus   • Reduced  to  simple  geometric  shapes   • Painted  originally   • Found  in  graves   • Flat  females.     • Not  big  difference  between  male  and   female  →  only  subtle  variations   • White  stone   • Not  know  more   • Important  →  abstraction.  Faces     Slide  8,  Slide  9   Minoan   Crete: Palace of Knosso s • Different  form  other  cultures   • Only  looking  at  Knossos  in  Crete   Site occupied 2000 – 1375 B. C. • Palace  discovered  19  century   • Very  large  complex   • Storage.  Residences.  Workshops   Knossos reconstructed • Other  rooms  we  don’t  know   • Not  fortified  →  Why  didn’t  need   it?  If  in  island?   • Everything  different  form  Egypt  →   but  were  communicated   • No  funerary  architecture  like   Egypt   • Imagery  not  militaristic,    kings  or  queens  →  just  enjoy  picture   making     Week  2   Slide  10,  Slide  11   • Octopus  Vase.  1500  BC   Reconstructed interiors • Monochromatic   • Relationship  object  vs.  field   • Field  →  circular.  Octopus   Octopus Vase c. 1500 B.C tentacles  follow  shape   • Diagonal  →sense  of  floatiness   • Object  follows  shape  of  vase   • Floating  around   • Everything  has  a  sense  of   airiness     Knossos: Toreador Fresco ca. 1500 Slide  12   • Not  bullfighting  but  strange  activity   • Conventiosn  of  representation  →  light  girl  dark  man   • We  don’t  know  whats  going  on .  Contour  line  of  bull.   • Bizarre   • Darker  parts  →  originals   • Reconstructed  →darker      Obvious  to  been  able  to  judge   • Greek  myths.  7  young  men  and  7  yound  women  sacrificed  to  a   monster  in  a  maze.  Palace  looks  like  a  maze,  so  whats  there   power  over  people  of  Greece?  Also,  the  bull  image  is  everywhere   in  Greece.  So????  We  don’t  know  but  these  are  just  guesses     Wall decoration Slide  13   • All  represent  different  things   • Contour  lines  are  common   • Not  many  straight  edges   Slide  14,  Slide  15   Mycenaean   Mycenae, Lion Gate 13th century B.C • Kept  rebuilding  palaces  →   earthquakes   Citadel, • In  600  BC  there  was  a  big   earthquake   • People  disappeared  and  other   people  took     over  →  not  clear  what  happened   • That  is  how  myceaenean   civilization  formed   Mycenaean • Homer  (100  BC  starting)   Civilization Citadels:   • High  up  on  mountains   • Surrounded  by  huge  fortification  walls  →  they  had  something  to   worry  about   Week  2   Slide  16,  17   Detail Dagger Blade 1550 – 1500 B.C. • Certain  formal  characteristics  close  to  Creates→related   • Difference:  Violent  component.  Social  values  were  different.   • Beautiful  craftsmanship     • Mycenaean  civilization  was  stable  and  lasted  a  long  time   • Around  1200BC  →  retreat  because  people  are  moving  in  →social   change         Greek  Culture   Slide  18     • All  of  these  are  related,  and  span  a  period  of  about  2400  years.   • Very  important  →  everything  relates  to  them  ,  even  modern   stuff   • Greeks  come  in  with  a  language  we  can  read  →  more   understanding  of  culture,  lifestyle,  way  of  thinking  etc       …and Marilyn Monroe Slide  20     • Shared  same  gods  but  with  different  names   Greek   Roman   Description   • Roman  names  are  used  in  Reinassance  and   Zeus   Jupiter   Lord  of  the  sky,  supreme  ruler  of  the  gods.     Baroque  Art   Poseidon   Neptune   Ruler  of  the  sea.   • 12  gods  ( )   Hades   Pluto   Ruler  of  the  underworld  and  the  dead.       Hestia   Vestia   Virgin.  Goddess  of  the  hearth  and  the  home   Hera   Juno   Protector  of  marriage,     Ares   Mars   God  of  war  and  son  of  Zeus  and  Hera.         Athena   Minerva   Goddess  of  civilization,  handicrafts,  agriculture   Apollo   Apollo   Sun  God.  God  of  light  and  truth  and  music     Aphrodite   Venus   Goddess  of  love  and  beauty   Hermes   Mercury   God  of  commerce,  herds,  travel,  thievery,  tricks   Artemis   Diana   Godess  of  chastity,  hunting,  wild  things   Hephaestus   Vulcan   God  of  fire  and  the  forge       Slide  21   Greek  Architecture   • no  matter  how  modern,  it  all  relates  back  to  greek  architecture       Week  2   Terminology   From  Merriam-­‐Webster  dictionary ,  or  my  own  words:  (Slide  19).  Pictures  taken  from  Profesor  Scalzo’s  Presenta tion       • Amphora:  plural  amphorae,   • Kore:  “an  ancient  Greek  statue   “an  ancient  Greek  jar  or  vase   of  a  clothed  young  woman   with  a  large  oval  body,  narrow   standing  with  feet  together”   cylindrical  neck,  and  two     handles  that  rise  almost  to  the   level  of  the  mouth”           • Black  figure  pottery:  Style  of   • Contrapposto:  Counterbalance.   painting  in  which  the  figu re  is   “a  position  of  the  depicted   made  first  and  put  on  top  of   human  body  in  which  twisting  of   vase.  Results  in  black  when   the  vertical  axis  results  in  hips,   fired.   shoulders,  and  head  turned  in     different  directions”       • Red  figure  pottery:  Style  of   • Canon  of  Polykleitos:  Canon:   painting  in  which  the  figure  is   “rule”.  Polykleitos  formula  of   scraped  out  of  vase.  Results  in   ideal  physical  perfection.  It   red  when  fired.  Allows  showing   emphasized  counterbalance   more  details  because  they  are   tension  and  relaxation.  It  became   easier  to  make.     the  standard  of  proportions  for       sculptors         • Bilingual  vase:  Vases  in  which   • Greek  concept  of  symmetry :   one  side  uses  the  black  figure   “balanced   technique  and  the  other  uses   proportions; also  : beauty  of  form   the  red  figure  technique   arising  from  balanced     proportions”.  Greeks  didn’t  have   such  a  strict  symmetry  but  more   of  a  balanced  symmetry  adquired     also  with  the  contrapposto       • Tesserae:  singular  tessera.”  a   • Acropolis: “the  upper  fortified   small  piece  (as  of  marble,  glass,   part  of  an  ancient  Greek  city.”   or  tile)  used  in  mosaic  work”   Located  in  the  highest  ground     containing  main  buildings  (chief   municipal,  religious)         • Kouros:  ”an  ancient  Greek   • Pedimental  Sculpture:  Relief   statue  of  a  nude  male  youth   sculpture  that  fills  up  a   standing  with  the  left  leg     “triangular  space  that  forms  the   forward  and  arms  at  the  sides”   gable  of  a  low-­‐pitched  roof”  in     classical  architecture;           Week  2   Exekias: Ajax and Slide  22  Slide  23   NebamunHunting Birds 1390-1352 B.C.. Achillesplaying aGame Introduction  to  Greek  Art   540-530 B.C. • Representational  art   • Goes  back  to  Trojan  war   • Shows  people  doing  something   →  competitive       mood  because:  warriors,  sitting  edge  of  seats,       leaning  in,  super  focused.   • Everything  frames  fingers   →most  important   game   • Left  guy  wins  cuz  big  hat  →  hierarchical   proportions   • Representations  of  people  in  greek  art  →  psychology  in  people   • Greeks  invented  theatre,   developed  philosophy  →  contributions   Introduction represented  in  the  art   • Look  at  it  as  a  movie   to Greek art •  source  in  Homer   Exekias: Ajax and Achilles •  how  this  relates  historically  to  the  Mycenaean  period.       playing a Game • Nebamun  not  as  naturalstic   540-530B.C • the  pot    was  signed  by  the  maker   Slide  24   Greek  Art   • Also  present  in  other  geographic  locations,   troughout  the   eastern  Mediterranean.     • Because  the  empire  kept  expanding  and  creating  colonies  in   other  places             Slide  25   Stylistic periods of Greek Art • “Hellenistic  has  to  do  with  politics,  whereas  the  other  stylistic   periods  commence  when  specific  aspects  of  the  arts  change.     Geometric 900- 700 B.C • You  ought  to  be  able  to  give  VERY  BRIEF  descriptions  of  the   Archiac700 – 480 B.C. (contrapposto) differences  between  the  styles.   Classical 480 – 323 B.C. “High” Classical 450– 400B.C. Hellenistic 323 -31 B.C. (323 B.C. is the death of Alexander the Great) (31 B.C. is the Battle of Actium, which is the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire) Slide  26   Week  2   Geometric period: 900 - 700 B.C Geometric  Period   8 century,Amphora 750– -735 B.C., Krater • Geometric    decorations.  Earlier  works  →  more  geometric.    More   modern  works  →  more  figures   • Simple.  Relearn  artistic  conventions   • Latest  date  735  BC     Easy  find  diagram  that  explains  the  gives   the  names  of  the  various   shapes  of  Greek  pottery     Exekias: Ajax and Achilles playinga Game   540-530 B.C 5– 1 BLACK FIGURE Slide  27   • Lively  image  →  Narrative   • Naturalistic   • Ceramics  →  Clay.  Fire  in  kilt  so  colours  are  bounced  to  surfaces.   High  temperature  →  Super  restricted  palette  as  opposed  to   painting   • Orangy  →  Red  figure.  Orange  already  given.     • Black  →  Exterior  layer  of  clay.  Knife  cuts  through  to  create  lines   of  shape  →  Black  figure.     Slide  28   • Very  strong  breaks  between  periods  of  time.     • 520  BC  →  Red  figures  take  over  black  figures   • Same  vase,same  artist  →  lets  us  know  how  they  manipulated   the  material   • Scraping  is  easir  than  sculpting  on  top  →  red  figure  is  better       Slide  29   PenthesileaPainter: Kylixinterior showing Achilles and Penthesile,a • Kilyx:  Shallow  bowl  on  pedestal.  They  tried  to  drink  from  it.   ca. 455 B.C. • Story:  Achilles  hero.  Amazon  l adies  fighting  over  him.  She  dies,   he  falls  in  love.   • Object  follows  shape  of  frame   • Lots  of  action  going  on   • Scale  of  figures  relative  to  size  of  frame:  big  but  are  in  a  way   that  fit  and  follow  frame   Week  2     525  B.C.   455  B.C Slide  30  Slide  31   • For  story  to  work,  they  have  to  be   looking  at  each  other   • 525  BC:     o profile  face,  front  eye.  Like  staring  at  viewer .     o Simplified   o Lots  of  decoration   o Not  conscious  frame   • 455BC  :     o much  more  intense  tragedy  because  characters  ca n  actually   525  B.C.   455  B.C look  at  each  other  →  much  more  organic  bodies.   o More  going  on  →  More  narrative   o Much  more  ambitious  artwork         Slide  32   Reed  Painter:
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