ITM 100 Lecture Notes - Machine-Readable Medium, Web Server, Wireless Network

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Security Policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration,
theft, or physical damage to information systems.
Controls All of the methods, policies, and procedures that ensure protection of the organization’s
assets, accuracy, and reliability of its records, and operational adherence to management standards.
War Driving Technique in which eavesdroppers drive by buildings or park outside and try to intercept
wireless network traffic.
Malware Malicious software programs such as computer viruses, worms and Trojan horses.
Computer virus Vogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files
in order to be executed, often causing hardware and software malfunctions.
Worms Independent software programs that propagate themselves to disrupt the operation of
computer networks or destroy data and other programs.
Trojan horse A software program that appears legitimate but contains a second hidden function that
may cause damage.
Spyware Technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their
Key logger Spyware that records every keystroke made on a computer to steal personal information or
passwords or to launch Internet attacks.
Hacker A person who gains unauthorized access to a computer network for profit, criminal mischief, or
personal pleasure.
Cyber vandalism Intentional disruption, defacement, or destruction of a Web site or corporate
information system.
Spoofing Attempts by hackers to hide their true identities by using fake e-mail addresses or
masquerading as someone else; may involve redirecting a Web link to an address different from the
intended one, with the site masquerading as the intended destination.
Sniffer Type of eavesdropping program that monitors information travelling over a network.
Denial-of-service (DoS) attack Flooding a network server or Web server with false communications
requests for services in order to crash the network.
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) Numerous computers inundating and overwhelming a network
from numerous launch points.
Botnet A group of computers that have been infected with bot malware without users’ knowledge,
enabling a hacker to use the amassed resources of the computers to launch distributed denial-of-service
attacks, phishing campaigns, or spam.
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