May 7 2012
Chapter 3: Global Dimensions of Management Dimensions of National
Lecture 3 continued….
Culture: the shared set of beliefs, values, and patterns of behaviour common to a group of people
- Japanese culture very different – they don’t tell mistakes not embarrass you
o Risk: do not give you job
- An American executive presenting at a Japanese conference: Concentrate, Strange face by an
- Laughing & Happiness
o In japan it is often a sign of confusion, insecureness and embarrassment
- Arriving late for a dinner invitation:
Managing Cultural Differences:
What is different?
- Communication styles
- Altitudes towards conflict
- Approaches to completing tasks
- Decision making styles
- Altitude towards disclosure
- Approaches to knowing
What is hidden below surface?
- Please discuss cultural differences that you have noticed among different cultures.
- Any film, previous group works, neighbours, friends….
- Confusion and discomfort a person experiences in an unfamiliar culture. - Stages of Culture shock
Need of info
o Small victories
Confidence grows in daily affairs
o The honey moon
Positive view of local ways
o Irritation and design
Criticism of new culture
Enjoying new culture
Accommodating less desirable.
o Reverse Cultural Shock
- When they think their culture is the best and anything besides their culture practices is weird/
- Make wrong assumptions about other people
- Premature judgments and misjudge
- They may not be very good at what we are best at
- By evaluating them by what we are best at, we miss the many other aspects of life that they
hoften handle more compentently than we do.
- Examples of ethnocentric thinking:
CI (Cultural Intellegicent): the ability to adapt and adjust to new cultures. Capacity to learn , observe
Low context cultures- emphasize communication via spoken or written words
High context cultures- rely on nonverbal and situational cues as well as on spoken or written words in
communication. Monochronic cultures- people tend to do one thing at a time
Polychronic cultures- time is used to accomplish many different things at once. Flexible in time and who
Proxemics – is how people use space to communicate.
North Americans large space (home, office, cars..)
Japan (tiny gardens, homes…).
Values of national cultures (Hofstedes)
- Power distance – cultures accepting inequalities
- Uncertainity avoidance: going to an environment of unfamiliarity.
- Individualism – collectivism
- Masculinity- feminity
- Time Orientation
Individualism : preference for a lossely knit social framework
- In which indiivudals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only
Ollectivism: Preference for a tightly- knit framework
- Indiivduals can expect their relatvies or memebers of a particular in group to look after thenm
- Term of I or We
Masculinity versus feminity:
- The degree to which a society values assertiveness and materialism versus feeling,
relationship and quality of line.
- Tendency for members of a culture to show stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
Uncertainity Avoidance Index:
- The degree to which a society is uncomfortable with risk, change, and situational uncertainity,
versus having tolerance for them.
- Low UAI display openness to change and innovation
- High UAI
Time orientation - Degree to which isociety emphasize shrot term or long term goals
- North America: Tendency toward desire for quick - Short term
- Asian : Willing to work for long- term patientce May 9 2012
Culture: a set of beliefs and values that a group of individuals.
- Ego oriented
- Money and things are important
- Live in order to work
- Physical and ordering
Low Masculine (Feminine)
- Relationship oriented
- Quality of life and people are important
- Work in order to live
- How management perspectives and practices systematically differs among countries and
o Work in groups:
o Think of assumptions, researches for comparative management
Project GLOBE ( Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness)
- Researches the leadership, organizational practices, and diversity among world cultures
- Robert House
- 170000 managers in 62 countries
- Effect of culture of management
9 dimesnsions :
- Power distance
- Uncertainity avoidance
- Gender egalitarianism ( the degree to which a culture minimizes gender inequalities)
- Future orientation ( the degree to which willing to look ahead)
- Institutional collectivism ( the degree to which society emphasizes group action and
- In-group collectivism ( the degree to which members take pride in their group and families and
are loyal and cohesive regarding them)
- Assertiveness: the extent to which a culture emphasize competitition and assertiveness in social
o Value tough behavior as apposed to mdoest - Performance Orientation: the degree to emphasize on performance excellence and
improvements ( training to increase performance)- caring about how the company does.
- Humane orientation: Tendency toward fairness, altruism, generosi