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Lecture 3

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Ryerson University
Law and Business
LAW 122
Andre Serero

May 7 2012 Chapter 3: Global Dimensions of Management Dimensions of National Culture Lecture 3 continued…. Culture: the shared set of beliefs, values, and patterns of behaviour common to a group of people Culture Differences - Japanese culture very different – they don’t tell mistakes not embarrass you o Risk: do not give you job - An American executive presenting at a Japanese conference: Concentrate, Strange face by an audience - Laughing & Happiness o In japan it is often a sign of confusion, insecureness and embarrassment - Arriving late for a dinner invitation: Managing Cultural Differences: What is different? - Communication styles - Altitudes towards conflict - Approaches to completing tasks - Decision making styles - Altitude towards disclosure - Approaches to knowing What is hidden below surface? - Belief - Perceptions - Expectations - Altitudes - Assumptions Group Work: - Please discuss cultural differences that you have noticed among different cultures. - Any film, previous group works, neighbours, friends…. Culture Shock - Confusion and discomfort a person experiences in an unfamiliar culture. - Stages of Culture shock o Confusion  First contact  Anxious  Uncomfortable  Need of info o Small victories  Continued interaction  Successes  Confidence grows in daily affairs o The honey moon  Wonderment  Cultural immersion  Infatuation  Positive view of local ways o Irritation and design  Negative overwhelms  Criticism of new culture o Reality  Rebalancing  Enjoying new culture  Accommodating less desirable. o Reverse Cultural Shock - Ethnocentrism - When they think their culture is the best and anything besides their culture practices is weird/ incorrect. - Make wrong assumptions about other people - Premature judgments and misjudge - They may not be very good at what we are best at - By evaluating them by what we are best at, we miss the many other aspects of life that they hoften handle more compentently than we do. - Examples of ethnocentric thinking: CI (Cultural Intellegicent): the ability to adapt and adjust to new cultures. Capacity to learn , observe and learn Low context cultures- emphasize communication via spoken or written words High context cultures- rely on nonverbal and situational cues as well as on spoken or written words in communication. Monochronic cultures- people tend to do one thing at a time Polychronic cultures- time is used to accomplish many different things at once. Flexible in time and who uses it. Space Proxemics – is how people use space to communicate. North Americans large space (home, office, cars..) Japan (tiny gardens, homes…). Values of national cultures (Hofstedes) - Power distance – cultures accepting inequalities - Uncertainity avoidance: going to an environment of unfamiliarity. - Individualism – collectivism - Masculinity- feminity - Time Orientation Individualism : preference for a lossely knit social framework - In which indiivudals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only Ollectivism: Preference for a tightly- knit framework - Indiivduals can expect their relatvies or memebers of a particular in group to look after thenm (and society) - Term of I or We Masculinity versus feminity: - The degree to which a society values assertiveness and materialism versus feeling, relationship and quality of line. - Tendency for members of a culture to show stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. Uncertainity Avoidance Index: - The degree to which a society is uncomfortable with risk, change, and situational uncertainity, versus having tolerance for them. - Low UAI display openness to change and innovation - High UAI Time orientation - Degree to which isociety emphasize shrot term or long term goals - North America: Tendency toward desire for quick - Short term - Asian : Willing to work for long- term patientce May 9 2012 Lecture 4 Culture: a set of beliefs and values that a group of individuals. High Masculine: - Ego oriented - Money and things are important - Live in order to work - Physical and ordering Low Masculine (Feminine) - Relationship oriented - Quality of life and people are important - Work in order to live Comparative management - How management perspectives and practices systematically differs among countries and cultures o Work in groups: o Think of assumptions, researches for comparative management Project GLOBE ( Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness) - Researches the leadership, organizational practices, and diversity among world cultures - Robert House - 170000 managers in 62 countries - Effect of culture of management 9 dimesnsions : - Power distance - Uncertainity avoidance - Gender egalitarianism ( the degree to which a culture minimizes gender inequalities) - Future orientation ( the degree to which willing to look ahead) - Institutional collectivism ( the degree to which society emphasizes group action and accomplishment) - In-group collectivism ( the degree to which members take pride in their group and families and are loyal and cohesive regarding them) - Assertiveness: the extent to which a culture emphasize competitition and assertiveness in social relationships. o Value tough behavior as apposed to mdoest - Performance Orientation: the degree to emphasize on performance excellence and improvements ( training to increase performance)- caring about how the company does. - Humane orientation: Tendency toward fairness, altruism, generosi
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