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Lecture 9

LAW 122 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: List Of Bubblegum Crisis Characters, Berlin Wall, Real Canadian Superstore


Department
Law and Business
Course Code
LAW 122
Professor
Theresa Miedema
Lecture
9

Page:
of 7
CULTURE
Definition: Knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, and any other customs and habits we acquire as
members of a society (societal beliefs). The “personality” of a group of people or society.
Language, place & time
Learned (and malleable)
Pervasive and not necessarily conscious
WHERE DOES CULTURE COME FROM?
Ecological factors: physical environment impacts the relative value of objects
oAffect how food is produced or gathered.
Tradition: customs and accepted ways of doing things in a society
oFamily decision-making style
oReligious traditions
oHolidays
INFLUENCE OF CULTURE
Culture: gives meaning to objects, activities and facilitates communication.
Consumption of food, clothing, and housing
oHouse to protect privacy vs. house as a showpiece or interacting with family and friends
oMaterial, construction, and décor
Perception of messages and media
Receptivity to new ideas and change
How close we stand
TYPES OF CULTURE
National culture –culture prevalent in a nation
o#WeAreWinter Sochi Olympics, Canadian athletes
oWe The North Toronto Raptors
LOYALTY PROGRAMS
What people value in loyalty programs differ
oGermany- utilities- value discounts
oIndia- prestige and status- special treatment
TYPES OF CULTURE
National culture –culture prevalent in a nation
Microculture/Subculture –culture of a group within the larger society
Corporations/institutions have culture too
oRefers to the beliefs and behaviors that determine how a company's employees and
management interact and develops organically over time from the cumulative traits of the
people the company hires.
Popular culture- culture of the masses
oClothes, movies, TV shows, music, cars, brands
oShapes norms and sanctions
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CULTURAL COLORS
Different colors have different meaning in different cultures
SOCIAL NORMS AND SANCTIONS
Cultural Norm: the often unspoken rules of a group, shape not just our behavior but also our
attitudes.
oInfluence even preferences considered private, such as what music we like or what
policies we support
oHelp us distinguish who is in the group and who is an outsider
Cultural Sanction: penalty associated with performing a non-gratifying or culturally
inconsistent behavior.
THREE TYPES OF CULTURAL RULES
Formal rules: explicit standards for behavior, sometimes with serious sanctions
Informal rules: less explicit, no sanctions
Technical cultural rules: implicit standards as to what constitutes a good product
CORE SOCIETAL VALUES (CSV)
NA values freedom, youthfulness, achievement
Japan –willing to trade off some independence for safety and security
Hofstede:
oINDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM
oPOWER DISTANCE
oMASCULINITY
oUNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
oLONG-TERM ORIENTATION
INDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM
Degree to which a culture relies on and has allegiance to the self or the group
Individualistic–prioritize the individual and value independence, privacy and personal
fulfillment -“I mentality”
Collectivist –tend to stress harmony, obedience, and hierarchical relationships –“We mentality
POWER DISTANCE
Power Distance: the extent to which less powerful members of society/organizations accept
unequal distribution of power, authority, wealth, status
High power distance –the boss is right because they are the boss.
oNever bypass the boss
oPower, admirable
Low power distance –the boss is right because they have the right answer.
oFrequently bypass the boss
oApproachable, equal
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MASCULINITY
Masculin/Feminine- assertiveness, competitiveness vs. caring, community
oLaptop –emphasize how to get ahead or how to stay in touch with loved ones
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
Uncertainty Avoidance- refers to the extent to which a culture feels threatened by ambiguous,
uncertain situations and tries to avoid them by establishing more structure.
Strong/high uncertainty avoidance –need for rules, formality –warrantees, service guarantees,
slower to adopt product innovations, more product information
oHigh quality, safety, tradition vs. risk (high), adventure, innovation (low)
LONG-TERM ORIENTATION
Long-Term Vs. Short-Term Orientation
oFuture rewards (hard work, perseverance, thriftiness, and long-term relationships) vs.
short-term benefits (immediate payoffs, live in the moment, valuing quick results and
striving to keep up with the Joneses)
oGuanxi: Chinese term for a way of doing business –need to invest time and resources in
developing relationships
Acceptance of credit cards from an unknown company
oRenquing: reciprocity need not be immediate
HOW WE LEARN CULTURE: SOCIALIZATION
Three stages of socialization
oPrimary socialization—of infants and young children by the family and early caregivers
oSecondary socialization—in childhood and adolescence, by the school, the religious
affiliation, the peer group, the neighborhood, and the media
oAdult socialization—the workplace, travel, assuming new roles in life
HOW IS CULTURE LEARNED?
Enculturation and Acculturation
Enculturation is a process that helps an individual acquire social values, norms, customs etc. of the
culture s/he lives in, acculturation is a two way change process that takes placed when there is a meeting
of two cultures (how we learn about new cultures).
CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM
The tendency people have to evaluate others according to their own standards and experience, therefore
there is a belief among consumers that their ethnic group and native products are superior to other ethnic
groups and their products.
VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Verbal Communication: the transfer of information through either the literal spoken or written
word.
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