MHR 405 Lecture 5: mhr405 5

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Published on 22 Feb 2016
Foundations of Employee
refers to the forces within a person that aect his or her
direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior
oParticular level of eort (intensity)
oCertain amount of time (persistence)
oParticular goal (direction
Although is de!nition is still being debated, is
de!ned as an individual’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation,
particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive eort toward work-
related goals
To understand how to create a more engaged and motivated workforce, we
need to understand the motivational “forces” or prime movers of employee
oAlso called primary needs) are de!ned as hardwired
characteristics of the brain that attempt to keep us in balance by
correcting de!ciencies
Drives accomplish this task by producing emotions to energize
us to act on our environment. A few drives that are consistently
identi!ed in research include the drive for social interaction,
understanding the environment, competence or status, and
defending oneself against physiological and psychological harm.
Everyone has drives and is born with them. They are prime
movers of behavior because they generate emotions.
oare goal-directed forces that people experience. They are the
motivational forces of emotions channeled toward particular goals to
correct de!ciencies or imbalances.
Suppose you arrive at work to discover a stranger sitting at your
desk. Seeing this situation produces emotions (worry, curiosity)
that motivate you to act. These emotions are generated from
drives, such as the drive to defend and the drive to know.
The emotional reactions to seeing the stranger sitting at your
desk represent the forces that move you, but you channel those
emotions towards speci!c goals
Everyone has the same drives, they are hardwired through evolution. The
type and intensity of emotions formed in a particular situation varies from
one person to the next.
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oIndividual’s self-concept (as well as personality and values), social
norms, and past experience amplify or suppress drive-based emotions,
resulting in stronger or weaker needs
This explains why needs can be “learned” to some extent.
Socialization and reinforcement may cause people to alter their
self-concept somewhat, resulting in stronger or weaker need for
social interaction, achievement, etc.
From the base of the pyramid to the top (lowest to highest need) it is:
Physiological (need for food, air, water, shelter, etc.)
oSafety (need for security and stability)
Belongingness/Love (interaction with and aection from others)
Esteem (need for self-esteem and social esteem/status)
oSelf-Actualization (Self-ful!llment, realization of
Although in real life this hierarchy theory has failed to prove true, Maslow deserves
credit for bringing a more holistic, humanistic, and positive approach to the study of
human motivation:
Holistic Perspective :
Maslow explained that the various needs should be
studied together (holistically) because human behavior is typically initiated
by more than one need at the same time
Humanistic Perspective:
Introduced the idea that higher-order needs are
in3uenced by personal and social in3uences, not just instincts
Positive Perspective:
Maslow popularized the previously developed concept of
self-actualization, suggesting that people are naturally motivated to reach
their potential and organizations/societies need to be structured to help
people continue and develop this motivation
Earlier we noted that drives are innate, whereas needs are shaped, ampli!ed or
suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past experience. David
McClelland investigated the idea, recognizing that a person’s needs can be
strengthened, and examined three “learned” needs: achievement, power and
– People with a strong nAch want to
accomplish reasonably challenging goals, and desire unambiguous feedback
and recognition for their success.
oMoney is a weak motivator, except when it provides feedback and
recognition. Employees with low nAch perform work better when
money is used as an incentive.
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 ! is a need in which people seek approval from
others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid con3ict and
oHigh nA employees work well in coordinate roles to mediate con3icts
and in sales positions, however they are less eective at allocating
scarce resources and making other decisions that can generate con3ict
oPeople in decision making positions should have a low nA so that
choices are not made to satisfy a personal need for approval
oPeople with a high "want to exercise control over others and are
concerned about maintaining their leadership position
oIndividuals who rely on power for its own sake and use it to advance
personal interest, or wear it as a status symbol, have a high need for
personalized power
oothers have a high need for
socialized power
because they desire
power as a means to help others
Developed by Harvard professors Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria, it is a motivation
theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend, and
that incorporates both emotions and rationality. The theory states that all 4
components are innate and hardwired into our brains, and there is no hierarchy,
they are independent.
oThis is the drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal
experiences. It goes beyond basic food and water, including one’s self-
concept through relative status and recognition in society.
oIt is the foundation of competition and the basis for our need of
esteem. The purpose of it is to achieve a higher position than others,
not just to ful!ll one’s physiological needs
oThis drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring
commitments with others. It explains why people form social identities
by aligning their self-concept with various social groups
oMotivates people to cooperate, and, consequently, is a fundamental
ingredient in the success of organizations and the development of
oThis is the drive to satisfy our curiosity, to know and understand
ourselves and the environment around us. When observing something
that is inconsistent with or beyond our current knowledge, we
experience a tension that motivates us to close that information gap
oThe drive to learn is related to higher-order needs of growth and self-
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