MHR 405 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Drive Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, Reward System

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Chapter 5 Foundations of Employee Motivation
Motivation defined
- The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary
behaviour
- Intensity – Level of effort
- Persistence – amount of time effort is exerted
- Direction – towards particular goal
Employee Engagement
- Both emotional and cognitive motivation
- Focus, intense, persistent, purpose effort towards goals
- An emotional involvement, commitment to, satisfaction with work
- High level of absorption in work – experience of focusing intensely on task with limited
awareness of events beyond work
- High level of self-efficacy – have ability, role clarity, resources to get job done
Drives and Needs
- Drive (primary needs) – Hardwire characteristics that energize individuals through generation of
emotions to correct deficiencies and maintain equilibrium
- Drives are “prime movers” of behaviour – activate emotions that put us in state of readiness
- Needs – goal-directed forced that people experience
- Channel emotional forces towards goal
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
- A motivation theory arranged in hierarchy, whereby people motivated to fulfill higher need as
lower one become gratified
- Main problem: needs of hierarchy is unique to each person, not universal
Maslow’s Contribution to Motivation
Holistic perspective
- Various needs should be studied together b/c behaviour initiated by more than one need at
same time
Humanistic perspective
- Higher-order needs influenced by personal and social influences, not just instinct
Positive Perspective
- Self-actualization, suggesting people are naturally motivated to reach potential and
organizations and societies need to structure to help people continue and develop motivation
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Learned Needs Theory
- Needs are shaped, amplified, or suppressed through self-concept, social norms and past
experience
- Therefore, needs can be “learned”
- Strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions
Three Learning Needs
Need for Achievement
- A need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals, and desire
unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success
- High-nach people accomplish reasonably challenging goals through own effort, prefer working
alone rather than in teams and choose tasks with moderate risk. They desire unambiguous
feedback and recognition for their success
Need for Affiliation
- People seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, avoid conflict
- Strong need for affiliation tend to support others and try to smooth out workplace conflicts,
tend to be less effective at decision making
Need for Power
- Desire to control environment (people and material resources) and concerned about maintain
leadership
- Benefit either themselves (personalized power) or other (socialized power)
Four Drive Theory
- Motivation theory based on innate drives, to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend that
incorporates both emotions and rationality
Drive to Acquire
- Drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences
- Enhancing one’s self-concept, need for esteem, higher position than other
Drive to Bond
- From social relationships and develop mutual caring commitment with others
Drive to Comprehend
- Satisfy our curiosity, know and understand ourselves and the environment
- Drive related to higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization
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