MHR 523 Lecture Notes - Job Design, Job Enrichment, Job Rotation

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Chapter 4 ± Designing & Analyzing Jobs
Organizational structure ± formal relationships among jobs in organization
in time; does not show: actual communication patterns, degree of supervision, amount of power &
authority, specific duties & responsibilities
- Bureaucratic
- Flat
- Matrix
Job design ± process of systematically organizing work into tasks required for performing specific job
- Core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback
- Critical Psychological States: experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for
work outcomes, knowledge of results from work activities
- Personal & Work outcomes: high internal work motivation, high-quality work performance, high
satisfaction with work, low turnover & absenteeism
x Strength of relationships is determined by intensity of employee growth needs
Job ± group of related activities & duties held by single employee or number of incumbents (categories)
Position ± collection of tasks & responsibilities performed by one person (# of job holders)
:RUN¶VVLPSOLILFDWLRQ ± approach to job design that involves assigning most admin aspects of work
(planning & organizing) to supervisors & managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined
tasks to perform according to methods established & specified by management
Industrial engineering ± analyzing work methods, making work cycles more efficient by modifying,
combining, rearranging, eliminating tasks; establishing time standards
Behavioural Aspects of Job Design
Job enlargement (horizontal loading) ± to relieve monotony & boredom that involves assigning workers
additional tasks at same level of responsibility to increase number of tasks they have to perform
Job rotation ± involves systematically moving employees from one job to another; consider feasibility,
employee well-being
adding more meaningful tasks & duties; increase difficulty, responsibility, authority, feedback
Team-based job designs ± focus on giving team, rather than individual, whole & meaningful piece of work
to do & empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish work
Team ± small group of people, with complementary skills, who work towards common goals for which
they hold joint responsibility & accountability
Ergonomics ± seeks to integrate & accommodate physical needs of workers into design of jobs; aims to
adapt entire job system ± work, environment, machines, equipment & processes ± to match human
characteristics; how they want to work
Job analysis ± procedure determining tasks, duties & responsibilities of each job & human attributes
.6$¶VUHTXLUHGWRSHUIRUPLW; HR planning, recruitment & selection, compensation, performance
appraisal, labour relations, training, development & career management, job design
1. Determine use to which information will be put, types of data collected & techniques used
2. Collect background info
3. Select representative positions & jobs to be analyzed
4. Collect data on job activities
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