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Lecture

MHR 523 Lecture Notes - Occupational Information Network, Job Analysis, Human Resource Management System


Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Professor
Al- Karim Samnani

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MHR Chapter 2: Job Analysis & Design (pg 56-73)
Job Analysis: systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, skill requirements, etc., for wage-setting,
recruitment, training, or job-simplification purposes
Jobs are at the core of every organization’s productivity – if they aren’t well designed and done right,
productivity suffers
For a HR department to be effective, its members must have a clear understand of the jobs found
throughout the organization
Job: group of related activities and duties
Position: collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual
Human Resource Information System (HRIS): large organizations use this to store information on various jobs;
HRIS permits easy retrieval of relevant job details; it able provides variety of information about the job, jobholders
and past performance standards; major HR activities that rely on job analysis info:
1. Careful study of jobs
2. Elimination of unnecessary job
requirements
3. Matching of job applicants to job
requirements
4. Planning of future HR requirements
5. Determination of employee training needs
6. Fair and equitable compensation of
employees
7. Efforts to improve quality of work life
8. Identification of realistic challenging
performance standards
9. Redesign of jobs to improve
performance/employee morale
10. Fair and accurate appraisal of employee
performance
STEPS IN THE JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS
Phase 1: Preparation for Job
Analysis
Step 1: Familiarize
w/the organization and
the jobs
Step 2: Determine uses
of job analysis
Step 3: Identify jobs to
be analyzed
Phase 2: Collection of Job
Analysis Information
Step 4: Determine
sources of job data
Step 5: Data collection
instrument design
Step 6: Choice of
method for data
collection
Phase 3: Use of Job Analysis
Information
Phase 1: Preparation for Job Analysis
Step 1: Familiarization with the organization and its jobs
Important to have an awareness of an organization’s objectives, strategies, structure, inputs and desired
outcomes
Intent is to collect relevant and accurate information about jobs and factors determining job success
Step 2: Determine Uses of Job Analysis Information
Job analysis plays critical role for many HR functions while most common uses are in the selection
process, training and designing performance appraisal and compensation systems, job analysis may also
be done to eliminate discrimination against specific employee groups/assist in job design
Details collected during a job analysis are influenced by the objectives of the study it is critical to define
the objectives early on
Step 3: Identify Jobs to be analyzed
Senior management and all key supervisors of the firm should be consulted before selecting jobs for in-
depth analysis, as the jobs selected for analysis can affect the strategic success and over HR policies of the
firm
The type, number and geographical dispersion of the hobs selected for analysis also influence the choice
of data collection method
Resource and time constraints often restrict analysis of all jobs
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MHR Chapter 2: Job Analysis & Design (pg 56-73)
Jobs that are critical to success of organization, jobs that are difficult to learn or perform (to determine
extent of training), jobs in which the firm continuously hires new employees (identification of clear job
requirements assumes great importance), jobs that exclude members of the protected classes
Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Information
Step 4: Determine Sources of Job Data
Most direct source of information about a job is the job incumbent but various other sources both
human and nonhuman may help
o Ex. training and safety manuals, organization charts and other company records, supervisors, job
experts, work colleagues
Internet has become valuable source for information about various jobs and occupation groups
Step 5: Data Collection Instrument Design
Analysts most often develop questionnaires that are called checklists/job analysis schedules.
Job analysis schedules: checklists that seek to collect information about jobs in a uniform manner; a summary of
purpose, goals and how job is performed. Most standardized forms attempt to measure the following items:
Status and Identification: status refers to whether the job is exempt from overtime laws. Other
identification includes job title, division and titles of supervisors and sometimes a unique job identification
number. Without these entries, users of job analysis data may rely on outdated info or apply the info
retrieved to wrong job which may misdirect other HR activities
Duties and responsibilities: listed to give more detailed insight into position; questions on responsibility
are expanded significantly when the checklist is applied to management jobs; additional questions map
areas of responsibility for decision making, controlling,, organizing, planning and other management
decisions
Human characteristics and working conditions: undercover the particular skills, abilities, education,
training, experience and other characteristics that jobholders need; valuable to fill job openings,
description of work environment improves job understanding. Working conditions may explain the need
for particular skills, training, knowledge or even particular job design. Knowledge of hazards allows the
human resource department to redesign the job/protect workers through training and safety equipment
Performance Standards: questionnaire seeks information about job standards which are used to evaluate
performance.
Forms for job analysis:
Functional job analysis (FJA): classifies tasks using three functional scales related to data, people and
things; each ranking behaviours according to complexity. The job analyst indicates the level oat which the
employee is operating for each of the three categories; this is done at each of the three functional scales,
resulting in a quantitatively evaluated job
Occupational Information Network (O*NET): for many decades, the US Department of Labour used a
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) to classify jobs and job skills, but changing technology required a
different approach. The new O*NET lists only 1000 occupations compared to 12 000 used by DOT.
Fleishman Job Analysis System (F-JAS): well researched job analysis method based on a list of 52
cognitive, psychomotor, physical, sensory abilities. The actual scales use a seven point anchor indicating
the different levels of abilities; used mostly in the US
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): offers more quantitative and finely tuned description of jobs than
F-JAS. Using five-point scale, it aims to determine the degree to which 194 different task elements are
involved in performing a particular job. Allows grouping of job elements in logical and quantitative
manner and the number of job elements covered under various categories are large. Claimed to make job
comparison easy, useful for lower level jobs
Critical Incident Method (CIM): focuses on critical job behaviours, duties and responsibilities. A job
incumbent will be asked to give examples of behaviours required to do the job effectively and the way
and means to do it
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