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Chapter 7 - Attitudes.docx

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Ryerson University
MKT 400
Kasi Bruno

CMKT400 - Chapter 7 - Attitudes 1. THE POWER OF ATTITUDES - Attitude – Is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, or issues o Attitude Object (Ao) – Anything toward in which a person has an attitude whether it is tangible or intangible o Attitude is lasting because it endures over time and general because it applies to more than a momentary event The Functions of Attitudes - Functional Theory of Attitudes – Initially developed by Katz and how attitudes facilitate social behaviour o They exist because they serve some function for the person; that is they are determined by a person’s motives - For marketers, it is important to know why an attitude is held before attempting to change it o Attitude Functions Identified by Katz:  Utilitarian Function – Related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. We develop an attitude toward a product if it provides pleasure or pain  Value-Expressive Function – Person forms an attitude towards the product not because of what it does but what it says about the person. Highly relevant in lifestyle analysis, expressive towards a particular identity  Ego-Defensive Function – Attitudes formed to protect the person either from external threats or internal feelings  Knowledge Function – Some attitudes are formed as a result of a need for order, structure or meaning. The ABC Model of Attitudes - This model emphasizes the interrelationships among knowing, feeling and doing. o Affect – Refers to the way a consumer feels about an attitude object o Behaviour – Or connotation, involves the person’s intensions to do something with regard to an attitude object o Cognition – Refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object  Hierarchies of Effects - Hierarchy of Effects – Explains the relative impact of three components: o High involvement – (CognitionAffectBehaviour)  Attitude: Based on cognitive information processing  Customer approaches a product decision as a problem solving processing, motivated to seek a lot of information and weigh alternatives, choice often results in brand loyalty o Low Involvement – (CognitionBehaviourAffect)  Attitude: Based on behavioural learning processing  Consumer has collected minimal information and has emotional response after they consume a product, does not have strong preference for a brand over another o Zajonc’s Model – (AffectBehaviourCognition)  Attitude: based on hedonic consumption  Consumers act on the basis of emotional reactions on product attributes such as colour, package design Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story - In decision-making situations, people form attitudes towards objects rather than the product itself that can influence their ultimate selections  Attitude Toward the Advertisement - Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad) – Defined as a predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion  Ads Have Feelings Too - Advertising has the capacity to directly affect brand attitudes such as disgust to happiness - Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad include the following: o Upbeat Feelings – amused, delighted, playful o Warm Feelings – affectionate, contemplative, hopeful o Negative Feelings – critical, defiant, offended 2. FORMING ATTITUDES - Attitudes can form in several different ways o Classical Conditioning – Wherein an attitude object, such as the McDonald’s name is paired with a jingle o Instrumental Conditioning – In which consumption of the attitude object is reinforced, Pepsi quenches ones thirst Not All Attitudes Are Created Equal - Important to distinguish attitudes, they are not all formed the same way Levels of Commitment to an Attitude - Consumers vary on their commitment to an attitude, the degree of commitment is related to their level of involvement with the attitude object as follows: o Compliance – Lowest level of involvement, attitude is formed because it helps gain rewards or avoid punishments from others, very superficial and likely to change when ones behaviour is no longer monitored by others (i.e., drinks Pepsi because its sold in café, too much trouble to get a Coke) o Identification – When attitudes are formed so that the consumer will then feels similar to another person or group, imitating behaviours of desirable models o Internalization – High level of involvement, deep-seated and they become a part of a persons value system, these attitudes are difficult to change The Consistency Principle - Principle of Cognitive Consistency – Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, and they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements - Consumers will change their thoughts about something to make it consistent with their other experiences  Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Attitudes - Theory of Cognitive Dissonance – States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviours, he or she will take some action to resolve this ―dissonance‖, perhaps by changing an attitude or modifying behaviour o People are motivated to reduce the negative feelings caused by dissonance by making things fit with one another o Dissonance reduction can occur by eliminating, adding, or changing elements  Self-Perception Theory - Self-Perception Theory – Provides an alternative explanation of dissonance effects o Assumes people use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes are, just as we assume that we know the attitudes of others by watching what they do o Relevant to the low-involvement hierarchy since it involves situations in which behaviours are initially performed in the absence of a strong internal attitude - Foot-In-the-Door Technique – which is based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with a smaller request o Useful for inducing customers to answer surveys or to donate money to a charity - Low-Ball Technique – In which a person is asked for a small favour and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly - Door-In-the-Face Technique – In which a person is first asked to do something extreme (a request that is usually refused) and then is asked to do something smaller  Social Judgment Theory - Social Judgment Theory – Also assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in the light of what they already know or feel o Initial attitude acts as a frame of reference and new information is categorized in terms of this existing standard - Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection – Around an attitude standard, people differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable o Assimilation Effect – Messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen a more consistent wit our own position than they actually are o Contract Effect – Messages falling in the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as even farther fro our own position than they actually are, resulting in a contrast effect  Balance Theory - Balance Theory – Considers relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging together o This perspective involves relations among three elements, these structures are called triads and each contains: 1. A person and his or her perceptions 2. An attitude object 3. Some other person or object - These perceptions can be either positive or negative, can alter to make relations among them more consistent
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