Faculty reference nse 11a f2014 week5: ways of knowing in nursing. Carper (1978) identified four patterns of knowing that nurses value & use in practice. Empirical knowing has prevailed as an approach to knowledge development. Methods for developing knowledge within the other patterns of knowing are only beginning to be systematically described. Many believe there has been an overvaluing of empirics as the knowledge of the discipline. Assumes that what is to be known is accessed through the senses. Reality is known by observation and verified by other observers. Empiric knowing is expressed in practice through the (cid:374)urse(cid:859)s s(cid:272)ientific competence. Guides & directs how nurses conduct their practice, what they select as important, which priorities demand advocacy. Ethical knowledge does not determine what should be done, but offers, insights and opinions. There (cid:373)ay (cid:271)e (cid:374)o satisfa(cid:272)tory a(cid:374)s(cid:449)er to so(cid:373)e ethi(cid:272)al dile(cid:373)(cid:373)as(cid:859) alter(cid:374)ati(cid:448)es (cid:373)ay (cid:271)e (cid:373)ore or less satisfactory.