Assessment Winter Week 1 Readings
- The skull is a rigid bony box that protects the brain and special sense organs, and it includes the bones of
the cranium and the face
- The adjacent cranial bones unite at meshed immovable joints called the sutures. The bones are not firmly
joined at birth; this allows for the mobility and change in shape needed for the birth process. The sutures
gradually ossify during early childhood.
- The coronal suture crowns the head from ear to ear at the union of the frontal and parietal bones.
- The sagittal suture separates the head lengthwise between the two parietal bones.
- The lambdoid suture separates the parietal bones crosswise from the occipital bone.
- The 14 facial bones also articulate at sutures (note the nasal bone, zygomatic bone, and maxilla), except
for the mandible (the lower jaw).
- The expressions are formed by the facial muscles which are mediated by cranial nerve VII, the facial
- Facial sensations of pain or touch are mediated by the three sensory branches of cranial nerve V, the
- The parotid glands are in the cheeks over the mandible, anterior to and below the ear. They are the largest
of the salivary glands but are not normally palpable.
- The submandibular glands are beneath the mandible at the angle of the jaw.
- A third pair, the sublingual glands, lie in the floor of the mouth.
neck - The major neck muscles are the sternomastoid and the trapezius
- The sternomastoid muscle divides each side of the neck into two triangles. - The anterior triangle lies in
front, between the sternomastoid and the midline of the body, with its base up along the lower border of the
mandible and its apex down at the suprasternal notch.
- The posterior triangle is behind the sternomastoid muscle, with the trapezius muscle on the other side and
with its base along the clavicle below. It contains the posterior belly of the omohyoid muscle.
- The thyroid gland is an important endocrine gland with a rich blood supply. It straddles the trachea in the
middle of the neck
- gland synthesizes and secretes thyroxine (T ) 4nd triiodothyronine (T ), 3ormones that stimulate the rate
of cellular metabolism.
- The gland has two lobes, both conical in shape, each curving posteriorly between the trachea and the
- Preauricular, in front of the ear
- Posterior auricular (mastoid), superficial to the mastoid process
- Occipital, at the base of the skull
- Submental, midline, behind the tip of the mandible
- Submandibular, halfway between the angle and the tip of the mandible
- Tonsillar, under the angle of the mandible
- Superficial cervical, overlying the sternomastoid muscle
- Deep cervical, deep under the sternomastoid muscle
- Posterior cervical, in the posterior triangle along the edge of the trapezius muscle
- Supraclavicular, just above and behind the clavicle, at the sternomastoid muscle chpt16
- The nose is the first segment of