NUR805 Lecture 6: Wk 6 lecture

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10 Feb 2016
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Week 6 lecture 1
Introduction
The focus of this module is general systems theory. Systems theory was rst
proposed in the late 1930s by Ludwig von Bertanlan#y who believed that
the systems model was a framework in which otherwise unconnected parts are
integrated.
In the ‘real world’, we apply systems theory on a regular basis. Try going to the
bank to renegotiate your mortgage – if you don’t understand how the banking
system works, you may nd this negotiation quite tricky. Try navigating city hall
when you’re trying to get a permit to put an extension on your house. If you don’t
know how city hall works, it’s pretty di+cult to gure out what you need to do, who
you need to talk you, and how to nd out what you need to know to get the permit
in the rst place. Try registering in a course. If you don’t know what department
you need to talk to, how the departments in the university are inter-related (or not),
and what these departments’ jobs are, enrolment can be a challenging process.
The bank is a nancial system; city hall is a political system; the university is an
educational/nancial/and political system.
As nurses, in ‘our world’ we apply systems theory on a regular basis. How did you
learn about the gastrointestinal tract when you were studying anatomy and
physiology? How did you come to understand how it works and why it works and
how to gure out the problem when it doesn’t work? Right, you applied systems
theory.
Key Ideas and Learning Objectives
Key Ideas addressed in Module 6
systems as a science of wholeness
characteristics of systems
oinput/throughput/output
oenvironment/boundary
oopen vs. closed
onegentropy/entropy
ohomeostasis/steady state
opositive vs. negative feedback
ocomplexity/di#erentiation
oequinality/equicausality
Learning Objectives for Module 6 - At the conclusion of this module, you will:
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Week 6 lecture 2
1. Identify the various components/characteristics of viable systems.
2. Analyze various systems that exist in both the ‘real world’ and in ‘our world’.
Recommended Learning Processes : To help you work through Module 6, the
following is suggested:
start by reading through the ‘introduction’, ‘key ideas’, ‘learning objectives’
and ‘required readings’ for this module – incorporate the suggestions in the
‘facilitate your own learning’ sections as you go along
then work your way through the ‘content notes’ section, incorporating the
‘facilitate your own learning’ suggestions and the ‘learning activities’ as you
go along
before this week's class you should have completed the ‘discussion
questions’ that you will nd on the discussion board for this week
*By the end of the weekend of this week, you should have prepared Module 7.
Working on your presentation
Don’t forget that the rst sections of your
team charter
are due to be completed
by the end of this week. It is not expected that you submit this document to your
instructor at this point. However, without the charter, it will be extremely di+cult
for you and your group to proceed with the preparation of your presentation.
You should also have already gone into your presentation group’s
group page
to
ensure that you have the access you need and are familiar with how the page works
(the instructions on Blackboard are fairly self-explanatory). If you are having any
di+culty with the
group page
, contact your instructor.
Preparing for your exam
Remember that the multiple choice exam will have questions on it that can relate to
any of the information contained in the required readings, module content, learning
activities, and weekly discussions. You may nd it helpful to focus on the
key
ideas
and
learning objectives
of each module to help you focus your studying.
Multiple choice exams can be a little tricky. When you are writing the exam, make
sure you read the question thoroughly so that you know exactly what it is you are
being asked. For example:
Which of the following is the most e+cient way to have cookies ready for when
company comes to visit?
a) nd a recipe; buy the ingredients; follow the recipe
b) buy a package of cookies at the grocery store
c) buy pre-mixed cookie dough and follow the instructions on the
package
The correct answer is ‘b)’. The question asks for the most e+cient way to get these
cookiesready. ‘E+cient’ means that you accomplish the task with the least
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Week 6 lecture 3
expenditure of energy.
This same question could be asked in a di#erent, multiple choice way:
The most e+cient way to have cookies ready for when company comes to visit is to
buy a package of cookies at the grocery store.
a) true
b) false
The correct answer would be ‘a)’ for the same reason as above.
However, if the question asked:
Which of the following is the most e#ective way to have cookies ready for when
company comes to visit?
a) nd a recipe; buy the ingredients; follow the recipe
b) buy a package of cookies at the grocery store
c) buy pre-mixed cookie dough and follow the instructions on the package
then the correct answer would be ‘a)’ because ‘e#ective’ means that the task is
accomplished with the best possible outcome, and everybody knows that
homemade cookies are the most e#ective – the best!
Multiple, multiple choice questions can also be tricky because the choices are more
complex. For example:
Which of the following would be considered ‘delicious’ chocolate chip cookies?
1. The chocolate chip cookies mom used to make
2. President’s Choice brand chocolate chip cookies
3. Chocolate chip cookies that have been burned from being left in the oven
too long
4. Chocolate chip cookies with no chocolate chips in them.
a) 2
b) 1, 2
c) 2, 3, 4
d) all of the above
The correct answer is ‘b)’. The question asks which chocolate chip cookies would be
considered delicious, not which chocolate chip cookies are, could or should be
delicious. Folklore claims that homemade cookies are the best; many people must
like President’s Choice brand chocolate chip cookies because this is one of the
bestselling brands. Most people don’t like burned anything, never mind burned
cookies. And chocolate chip cookies without chocolate chips in them aren’t
chocolate chip cookies!
Introduction to System Theory: Glossary of Terms (prepared by Sue Calabrese, 2004
and used with permission) [with some additions, KTS]
Glossary of terms:
System
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