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Lecture 2

Winter Week 2 - Descriptive Statistics/Intro to SPSS

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Winter Week 2 Descriptive StatisticsIntro to SPSSJanuary2011720 PMIntro to StatsIThere are two kinds of statisticsDescriptive statistics are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of 1data The collection is sometimes called a data set or just datahelps us get a picture of the research sample and findingsExample if you needed to describe what the most popular college major is you could use a descriptive statistic that summarizes their choice called the mode If you wanted to know the average age you could compute another descriptive statistic that identifies this variableA series of tests used to describe synthesize organize Describe general trendsInferential statistics are used to make inferences from a smaller group of data eg 22 college 2students to a possibly larger one eg all the undergrads in a collegeWhy have statisticsTo help us answer questions and make sense of dataFor example What is the average reaction time of college students when they sleep 6 hours a night for three nightsFrequenciesThe most basic way to illustrate data is through the creation of a frequency distribution A frequency distributionis a method of tallying and representing how often certain scores occur In the creation of a frequency distribution scores are usually grouped into class intervals or ranges of numberseg N20Here are some exam results using a frequency distributionX f frequency A5 B8 C4 D3The first step in the creation of a frequency distribution is to define how large each interval can be known as a class intervalHistograms and Frequency Polygons intervalratio dataResearchers often portray frequency data in tables or graphicallyGraphs charts includeHistograms vertical barsFrequency Polygons dots connected by straight linesHistograms and polygons are the most widely used graphs for displaying interval and ratio leveldataA frequency distribution histogramSelfconfidence100806040Frequency polygon20Another way of portraying the same dataStd Dev1355Mean624a single dot is centered above the scorevalueN431000Frequency900800700600500400300200A continuous line that represents the frequencies of scores within a class interval850750650550450350250Selfconfidence Research Page 1
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