PRODUCT FLOW & KITCHEN DESIGN (Week 9)
-Food product flow are alternative paths w/in foodservice ops that food & menu items
may flow, beginning w/ receiving & ending w/ service to the customer. Alt paths aim
at inc productivity, dec cost or strengthening control of ops. Physical, chemical &
microbiological changes occurring in food throughout all stages of procurement,
production, service must be controlled to ensure quality & safety of products.
Types of Foodservices (Food Production Options)
I. Conventional/Traditional foodservice
-Foods are served on trays using centralized service (plates & trays are assembled
close to production) or decentralized service (good transported in bulk to a location
separate from production & plates & trays are assembled in that location). Food
produced is served on the same day. Conventional foodservice requires full
complement of staff during time of service. Raw foods and convenience foods are
purchased. High labour costs and moderate food costs.
-Conventional foodservice is like homecooking. Hospital service goes from breakfast
lunchdinner w/ patients having the options to request snacks. Most of the food
bought is used for the day which means, this type doesn’t rely much on inventory.
The level of processing is high b/c there are more ingredients than prepared products.
7 day/week production staff is required & they get time ½ or 2x pay on holidays.
*Food goes from procurementproductionhot holdingmeal assembly
transportationservice to customer
II. Ready-prepared foodservice
-Many hospitals use cook chill (allows for a 4-day shelf life; menu items are partially
cooked, rapidly chilled & held in chilled storage prior to service using special carts/
convection/microwave ovens), cook-freeze (3-6month shelf life; menu items are
partially cooked, rapidly frozen, held in freezer storage & reheated prior to service)
technology. Sous-vide is the process of sealing raw, fresh food items in plastic
pouches to allow chilled storage & then cooking in boiling H2O prior to service, aka
reduced O2 packing; extends shelf life to 21 days.
-Produces large quantities of food for service in the future. Foods are placed in
inventory & must be rethermalized. Raw foods & convenience foods are purchased.
40hr work wk for production staff. Moderate labour costs & food costs. Specialized
equipment required such as blast chillers, tumble chillers, rapid thawing refrigerator,
conveyor belt, shrink wrap machines, etc. Food safety is a concern b/c of thawing and
reheating. Works best w/ a static menu.
-Evolved b/c scratch cooking is a time consuming process, labour was expensive,
shortage of skilled labour but sometimes they actually spend more on prepared meals
than if it was done from scratch, eg. pudding cups. Instead of preparing foods for
immediate use, we can build inventory to use days/months later. You would not need
production staff on weekends or even chefs/cooks b/c you’re just reheating foods. The
# of production staff decreases b/c efficiency increased, ie. Synergies of doing more
in the same amt of time.
-From conventional to cook/chill/freeze/sousvide, there was a change in kitchen
design: special appliances, regular storage area b/c food is still prepared on site, etc.
The disadvantage w/ this type of service is that you can’t multiply recipes; if you chill
something, will the quality of food change?. You need a special chef to understand food technology & one that understands standardized recipes & then you can get less
qualified cooks for other shifts. Cold production includes salads, sandwiches &
sometimes dessert; staff makes cooked ingredients ahead of time & produced fairly
close to the time of service to avoid compromising quality. In an ideal kitchen, if
you’re making batches, how will you consider for special diets. Still need to do
modifications & if you become an expert, you’ll be able to make those ahead too. Eg.
If it’ll cost you $400,000 to refurbish a kitchen, you can negotiate that it’ll save the
company money in the long run like $100,000 each year b/c of adapting ready-
prepared foodservice. Say you pay it pack after 4 yrs, thus in the 5 year, you’re
actually saving money. Sometimes it’s not about the upfront expense, it’s what
happens in thereafter & this also led to the movement to prepared food items.
*Food goes from procurementproductionchilling/chilled storagebulk reheating
hot holdingmeal assemblyservice to customer OR can proceed right to meal
III. Commissary foodservice
-Cooking in one location & send food to a variety of units for service. Primarily raw
foods are purchased. Low food cost. Production staff is in one unit only. Low-
moderate labour costs. Transportation of finished goods required. Specialized
equipment needed; foods can be hot, chilled/frozen. Food safety is a concern
primarily due to food being transported from location to location.
-are centralized procurement & production f