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Fallacies Questions.docx

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PHL 214
Alex W.

Short Answer Questions: Fallacy Identification Questions Extra Practice: Identify the fallacies (if any) in the following sentences. Explain your answers. 1. Horoscopes do predict the future. Millions of people read them every day. 2. It is immoral to eat meat because it is unethical to use animals for food. 3. The existence of ghosts has never been disproved. Therefore ghosts do exist. 4. Astudent group has formed to lobby for more vegetarian choices in the college cafeteria. This group will never succeed because they’ll never get other students to become vegans. 5. The sports section of the Globe and Mail is terrible. Those reporters don’t know what they’re talking about. The statistics are out of date and they don’t even cover major events. That newspaper sucks! 6. I am either the best or the worst tennis player. 7. You really shouldn’t eat that chip. You will just want another and another, and you will end up eating the whole bag. Then you will want a bag every day. Your arteries will clog, and you will have a heart attack within months. 8. Criminals cannot be rehabilitated, because no true criminal can ever be reformed. Once a criminal, always a criminal. 9. Violence among schoolchildren on the playground is on the rise. This must mean that society in general is becoming more violent. 10. Make no mistake about it: If you don’t support anAmerican military presence in Afghanistan and Iraq, then you support terrorism. Jack here doesn’t support an American military presence inAfghanistan and Iraq. Therefore, Jack supports terrorism. 11. Hegel said ‘God is dead,’and Hegel was a philosophical genius. Nietzsche said ‘God is dead,’and Nietzsche was a philosophical genius. Trent Reznor said ‘God is dead.’ Therefore, Trent Reznor is a philosophical genius. 12. The average Canadian voter will never support a universal childcare proposal. This is a policy promoted by extreme feminists who would like to bring about the downfall of the traditional family. 13. The animal rights people should not protest against the zoo. They should come out and see how much fun all the little kids are having. Everyone loves going to the zoo. 14. The notion of global warming is ridiculous.Ask anybody and they’ll agree that in the last ten years winters have gotten colder and colder. 15. Jeffrey was not allowed into the club because he did not have his ID with him. 16. Alex argued forcefully again the expansion of the highway, but you shouldn’t listen to her; after all, she had her license suspended for speeding. 17. Recent studies have shown that Canadian society is becoming increasingly liberal in its sexual practices. Asma must be sexually liberated then. 18. RosalieAbela is one of Canada’s most important judges, but Simon Cowell is one of North America’s most important judges. So Simon Cowell’s views on the Conrad Black trial are more important than RosalieAbela’s. 2 19. Either science can explain how she was cured, or it must be a miracle. Science can’t explain it, so it must be a miracle. 20. Using animals in medical experiments is a horrific practice! The poor creatures are tortured, maimed, and killed all in the name of science. What did those cute little mice, or funny monkeys ever do to us? It is an outrage! 21. In Iran, women who are accused of adultery are stoned. We can’t be against a tradition that is at least a thousand years old. 22. Every daycare centre should have a policy requiring the children to wear hats and sunscreen with a high SPF when they play outside in the sun. Dr. Sun, a leading dermatologist, has informed us that the young are especially vulnerable to the sun’s harmful rays, and she expects an increase of skin cancers on the tips of ears because children are not being protected. 23. If you break the law then you should go to jail.Anyone committing adultery violates God’s law. Therefore, anyone committing adultery should go to jail. 24. My opponent has accused me of mishandling of campaign funds. But this administration has improved the lives of ordinary citizens. We have reduced the crime rate, built ten new childcare centres, three new parks, improved the public transit system, all while keeping taxes at the same level they were at ten years ago. 25. My last two boyfriends both cheated on me. No men are capable of being faithful. 26. “[Dr. Heinz] Klatt is well known on campus for his insistence (in articles in Western News and elsewhere) that Islam is an inherently violent religion. He generally backs up these claims by citing passages from the Quran. It’s therefore not surprising that he would object to a translation that interprets some verses less violently.”—Dr. Jamie Andrews' letter to the UWO Gazette "Heinz Klatt looking for reasons to decry the Quran" Oct.30, 2007. 27. “Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. The recognition of that can take most of the sting out of accusations that you're being 'selfish.' Why should you feel guilty for seeking your own happiness when that's what everyone else is doing, too?”—Harry Browne, from "How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World" (1973). 28. “To cast abortion as a solely private moral question,…is to lose touch with common sense: How human beings treat one another is practically the definition of a public moral matter. Of course, there are many private aspects of human relations, but the question whether one human being should be allowed fatally to harm another is not one of them. Abortion is an inescapably public matter.”—Helen M.Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy, 1995, p. 23. 29. “If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other. Ignorance and fanaticism is ever busy and needs feeding. Always it is feeding and gloating for more. Today it is the public school teachers, tomorrow the private. The next day the preachers and the lectures, the magazines, the books, the newspapers.After [a]while, your honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century when bigots lighted fagots to burn the men who dared to bring any intelligence and enlightenment and culture to the human mind.”—Clarence Darrow, The Scopes Trial, Day 2 4 30. “It is a sad commentary on our society when the protection of buildings is more important than the protection of people. Suggestions that homeless people are to ‘blame’for break-ins and the destruction of buildings, heritage or not, in a country that has sub-zero temperatures for several months, is disturbing. “Put yourself in their shoes and consider what any reasonable human might do when faced with overflowing emergency shelters and nowhere to go. Starting a fire in an abandoned building is unsafe but is not a
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