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Notes on Philosophers

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PHL 306
Thomas Hart

Plato Readings y Great Athenian philosopher who wrote the Gorgiasnotable for the theory of the Forms y Socratesmain character Gorgias deals with themes that philosophers to this day study such as relationships bw goodness and pleasure y Might is right amoralism realpolitikfascism y Callicles 1 of Socrates adversariessophistskills in oratory y Thrasymachusanticipated Marxs viewsjustice is simply the interest of the stronger and morality a system of rules furthering that interest y Rousseaunatural and social characteristics of human beings y Oratory is a beneficial art and that it confers the power to get what one wants y It is better to suffer wrong than to do wrong and that the wrongdoer is more miserable than the man who is wronged y Wrote about how some people would rather die than live when wronged as they are unable to help themselves or any others whom he cares for y Should the better rule the worse Socrates questions Callicles y Justice is equality to do is more disgraceful than to suffer injustice y What is the superior Are 2 men not better than one Who are the better if they are not the stronger The wiserAccording to Callicles y So one wise man should rule 10000 fools they should be his subjects and the wise man should have more than the inferiorAccording to Callicles y Callicles first states that the better and superior are the stronger then states they are the wiser and now he states that they are the more courageous y Callicles believes that luxury if provided with means is happiness y Quote by EuripidesWho knows if life be not death and death life and that we are very likely dead y Socrates claims that all wants thirsts and desires are painful in which Callicles agrees y Socrates makes another claim that those who rejoice are good when goods are present to them but also that those who are in pain have evil and sorrow present with themAristotle Readingsy The Nicomachean Ethicsdeals with Aristotles discussions of the human function justice the golden mean responsibility and the will the nature of practical reason etc y Do human beings as such have a function and single end y Every art inquiry action and pursuit is thought to aim at some good y Goods can also bring harm to many people y What does political science aim at and what is the highest of all good achievable by action
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