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PHL 553
John Caruana

PHL 553 L2+tutorial 1/23/2013 Critques of natural attitude & positivism • positivism is the naive view that what is real is what is given of posited (positum) • social scientists who espouses positivism holds that the world that the world consists of straightforward objects clearly defined behaviours, etc • positivists says: simply observe + record the facts as you see them • no interpretation is required • positivism completely ignores the critical role played by conscientiousness in constituting the world • doxa-opinionated way of thinking ◦ mere opinion ◦ unquestioning • as such, positivism is actually bad science • husseral wanted to correct this misassumption in favour of science Phenomenology is the study of phenomena • study of how things appear to us (in process “happening” we need to carefully observe) • phainomenon (that which appears) • describe the happenings of this appearance • decriptive science of out experience method • consists of two fundamental reductions (refocusing) ◦ epochē (transcendental reduction) ▪ break down natural standpoint • world is simply there independently of me • world stands outside of me filled w/ pregiven objects ▪ shift your attention away from the object of experience to the experience itself ▪ momentarily bracket the so-called real world\ ▪ epochē breaks down the habit of thinking how things must be, as opposed to how things are actually given to us in experience • let the phenomena appear for itself • what is left after the epochē is conducted? ◦ Simply a conscientiousness of something ▪ perception of a tree ▪ fear of a spider ▪ desire for this chocolate ice cream ◦ focus of the experience ◦ now we're in the phenomenological zone! Intentionality – directed at something • every act of conscienceness is always a consciousness of something, some 'x' • intentionality: every mental act is directed toward something PHL 553 L2+tutorial • conscienceness is intentiona , always directed to something o • ther than itself (x) ◦ transcendent • object of an intentional act need not to be real • one obvious advantage of phenomenology is that it provides us with a way of analysing/describing any experience ◦ e.g dreaming, imagining, etc. ▪ Reading a book knowledge as relational • according to Descartes mind + matter two distinct substances • this is the wrong starting point ◦ how could they ever come into contact • for husseral consciousness + world aren't radically distinct, but related • consciousness is always in relation to the world • if we separate them it's only after the fact, + always in abstraction second reduction • eidetic reduction ◦ what is essential ◦ discern the essential structures that are involved in any given intentional act ◦ objective here is to pinpoint the universal conditions of the possibilit
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