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PHL 710
James Cunningham

Lecture 2 Panofsky said of theatre, that theatre is of elitist whereas film is democratic; For Panofsky the film is democratic because not only is it subject matter of people, but people are who are filmed. The most filmic expression is documentary, which is following people and taking what happens in real life and gives details. This is the most democratic of art. Susan Sontag believes both film and theatre can be democratic. What makes film democratic is the recourse of film or any other art form for what she calls radicalism. Radicalism not only what makes film an art, it makes it democratic. Radicalism occurs by doing things different. It is a violation of convention (what happens usually), but it cannot be a rejection of all convention other wise we would not understand it. The true artist for Sontag says for everyone who can’t, he says watch me. 1. Radicalism – own special temperament and talents, He says he can show what no one else can’t. Art today embraces radicalism, it makes it very individualistic  Freedom of individual expression is one of the hallmarks of a democratic state. Freedom is indicated by our freedom of individual expression. 2. The effect of it is to shock the audience; the effect of the shock is certain amount of self reflection, where the audience says what am I seeing? what am I doing when I see it? 3. Shock draws the audience into the film, Sontag calls it the power of radicalism to awaken dead audiences. self reflexive response involvements ^This is how Sontag deals with Panofsky’s opposition that theatre is elitist. Neighbors is an example of a democratic art because of its shock value. Panofsky is dead wrong is what Sontag feels. She feels that after WWII, theatre borrows more from film. Hollywood films do not shock us, they simulate us. Simulation does not lead to a self reflection, it just makes us jump. For the In Class Quiz: - 320 Words - A evidence clarity, complete. Prepare an answer word to word. Closed book test. Film: Le Jetee The Film Le Jetee embraces radicalism; We are going to see how it effects us. And if it shocks us it embraces radicalism. What is not conventionally associated with film? It is a narration of photos, suddenly film rolls as she wakes up 1) Slide Show 2) Photo Journalism 3) Family Photo Album 4) Literary Narrative Le Jetee is a great example of what sontag says radicalism in film. It is radical by not using conventions used in films, from extra filmic conventions to filmic innovation. –example (The whole film was made on stills except where she is asleep and she opens her eyes and blinks. Other then that everything was done in films. This is a shock. The film looks like a slide show, but it is not. It is not a slideshow because it does not look like it even though it is a progression of stills. The Illusion of movement is created, and it is shot in film. We know it is shot in film because one image gives way to another image. In a slide show we see a blacking out and a new image appears. It is an instant transition shot cut, It fades and also dissol
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