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Lecture 5

PHL 101 Lecture 5: PHL 101 - Week 5


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL 101
Professor
Sasa Stankovic
Lecture
5

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Plato’s Phaedo
- Plato (428-348 BCE)
- Came from a politically engaged family (Ex. Came from the Kennedy’s) so he was
primed to be one of these people
Socrates
- Critical engagement/ gadfly → wisdom/knowledge
- Method of asking what things are
- Dying for the sake of principle (reason not faith)
- Does not matter what sort of position, it’s the reason behind your position that matters
Phaedo
- Dialogues that deal with the last day of socrates, so what happens after Crito
- The time has come for him to drink hemlock and he reveals that he is not afraid to die
- It’s worse to ruin my own soul and cry and plead than to die
- The idea that he’s not afraid of death because his soul doesn’t die
- We don’t know what happens
- Calm long sleep, maybe better than most days we have
- Claims his soul is immortal
- What does he means by the soul?
- Essence
- Movement suggests there is something that makes it more
- There are material things that don’t move
- Plants are moving up, eating, animals are moving, humans are moving
- More than just material elements (things that are just matter *table*, that there is
no soul)
- Things that are pure matter would also be moving, therefore they don't have soul
psuche→ animating force that attributes souls to things that move, ontologically
independent of the body
- When the body dies it continues being real and existing, you can’t find souls in a
material world
- Body dies, soul lives on (immortal cannot be destroyed)
- Its existence does not depend on the continous existence of matter
- When your body dies
Simmias Objection:
- Problem with ontological independence
- Pg.75/86 → Lire and strings, once cut, does harmony still exists?
- Hard to say the harmony is still around even if the lire and the strings are not around
- If the body is destroyed, the soul is still too
- Consciousness is related to the body, ontologically dependant on the body, so for it to
continue existing, the body must also exist
- Soul is so fundamentally attached to the body, so you just die
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