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Lecture 1

POL 128 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: King Power, Special Relationship, Decision-Making

Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POL 128
Zboralski Joseph

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Politics and Film POL128
Week 1B
According to Aristotle Politics is the master science (touches on all aspects of life)
Comes from the Greek word Polis (city)
First politic experiment in democracy
Came about because politics happens in city (Athens)
Greek’s believe politics = better person
Interaction with other humans made you more human, if you were independent it made
you an animal
1) Decision making mechanism for society
o Larger Population = harder decisions
2) Viewed as system for conflict resolution
o Old days resolution was fight and battles
o Modern days resolution is politics
o System Breaks = Society Breaks
3) Authoritative allocation of values
o Allocates value to wealth and health
o 8 extremely wealthy men, have more wealth than the bottom 50% of the world’s
population (3.5 billion people).
4) Just Society
o Cannot have maximum freedom and maximum equality at the same time
o Humans are not all equal
o Equality needs to restrict freedom
o Restrictive to keep equality
Empirical vs. Normative
o Fact Based
o Look at the world how It
o Realistic
Machiavelli States that anything
goes (if you need to kill someone
to protect yourself/anyone do it)
o Fact Based with Ethics
o World as it ought to be
o Stats Can = Empirical because
states 2 million kids in poverty,
saying that is wrong is normative
o Attempts to Better the world
o Idealistic
o Karl Marx and Plato
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Week 2A
o Power is the currency of politics
o Power is the ability to get what you want regardless of what others want
o More power you have = more you can get
o How much power you have is relative to how much your relatives/neighbours have
(Canada is not powerful to U.S, therefore people want to study in the U.S), but Canada is
powerful relative to Bolivia.
Power is exercised in 3 ways:
Influence Persuasion
o Convince people to stop smoking, give facts and studies to persuade people to stop
smoking. (Appeal to emotions = “tear jerker”) Use gross packaging pictures.
Coercion Force
o Government punishes you for crimes, use force or charges to intimidate you.
o Death penalty (Make people scared and behave the way they want)
Authority Legitimacy (Leadership)
o Respecting government rules because they are legit
o Legitimacy + Obligation
o Must follow traffic rules
o Most systems use authority / leadership
o If your rules are not followed with authority, then the force is not used
Sources of Authority All three Sources Still Exist
1) Traditional/Historical Factors
o Special relationship to God
o Inheritance; born into the royal bloodline must be in right bloodline, past
traditions (military)
o Ex. Divine right of King = King power, king is connected to god.
o Don’t accept political power to be inherited (Past)
o Accept that economic power to be inherited (Present)
o Economic Power = Power
2) Charisma
o Special qualities of a person that compels others to follow them.
o Ex. Hitler was a compassionate speaker, he had weird theories but many Germans
believed them due to his charisma.
3) Legal/Rational Factor
o Power through legal processes
o Ex. Winning PM/President through election (Legit)
o After winning, now have legal authority that people will follow
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Week 2B
3 Concepts that Hold Power
1) State
o Institutions of Political Authority in given country
o Ex. Parliament, government and police
o Monopoly on use of force
o Has power to use force against population (Ex. Jail)
o Government has power to take away property
o Only institution that has this power
Must have 4 components:
I. Territory (Size doesn’t Matter, but resources and location do)
II. Population
III. Sovereignty (Having power / Independence)
IV. Functioning Government
o More than 60% of Canadian economy is owned by foreigners
o Big economic decisions are made by U.S.
o This takes away sovereignty
o The identity of Canada is the fact that it has no identity
2) Nation
o Group of people with common identity (language, religion)
o Nationalism is psychological attachment to the nation
o Every distinct group of people should have their own country/nation. (Ex. Quebec
different language and religion)
o Nationalism binds people together to build a better country.
o Too much nationalism can be dangerous because people start to exclude others from their
groups and feel superior to other groups.
o 2 types of Nationalism:
I. Ethnic Nationalism (Language, Race, Religion etc...)
II. Civic Nationalism (Identity with political System)
3) Active Part of State = Government
o Elected they change
o Active = PM changes position
o Responsibility:
Protect Territory
Take Care of Population
Guard Sovereignty
o Governments Produce:
Laws (Ex. Trudeau legalizing
Policies (Objective: Promote
economic growth)
o Outputs of Government = Public Policies
Heart of the Canadians Government =
Ideas originate
Parliament just cleans up and votes
o Public Policies
Foreign (Canada’s Relationship with
other countries trade)
Domestic Economic (Taxes and
Spending) and Social (Health and
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