POL 203 NOTES.docx

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Politics and Public Administration
POL 128
Joseph Zboralski

POL203 - Lecture 1 politics - allocation of rescores who gets what when and how environment - all the components characteristics and conditions in the natural world that influence organisms power - ability to get people to do what you want ENVRIONMENTALISM prisms through which we view environmentalism issues. depending on our perspective we act differently - discourse --> how people talk about the environment - institution --> how institutes of society value the environment for example environment Canada and their regulations and laws, and how many employees have - philosophies - --> how people articulate the environment - ideology --> set of beliefs of how the world and is often normative and questions and proposes change in the structure. Environmental politics characterized by: complexity due to nature of the problem : the tragedy of the commons environmental problems are complex - because of rational actors, uncertainty, imperfect response. action is far from perfect. it is not about optimal solution. diversity of interests at play: it is clear that people bear more problems than others when it comes to the impact of the environment. distribution of costs and benefits: occurs at different stages and scales. all of this causes problems with environmental politics. Environmental politics characterized by imperfect math to existing institution - legacies , people didn't think of the environment in different ways back in the day because it was not thought of as importance then - problems of scale - not neatly matched to scale of our institutions example great lakes Classification Ecocentrism - we protect the environment because it has value in the end --> rights, moral and ethical Deep ecology - All forms of life have equal value, have a moral and ethical obligation - They don't have right to expand at expense of others - Economic development not valued - Rejects traditional forms of social organizations states and markets - Nature has inherently valuable - it has a moral and ethical in itself - everyone is equal and can make decision -- no power Anthropocentrism - we protect the environment because Sustainable Development "to meet needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" - Economic development is okay as long as it within limit - accepts current forms of social organization with some reforms, especially greater participation and international cooperation - nature as instrumentally valuable - we want to preserve environment but there are benefits Environmental Movement "broad networks of people and organizations engaged in collective action in pursuit of environmental benefits" - companies --> products and business processes - avid recycler - not engaged in direct political competition - does not align with traditional economic cleavages Waves of Environmentalism 1st wave - 19th century conservation and protection of certain natural areas 2nd wave - environmental movement 1960's we begin to see social movement and radical elements in terms of environment. example(overturning society and challenging) moderate change as well. diversifies in 1960's and begins to part of common culture. laws, rules and regulations begin and people advocating for the protection of environment. 3rd wave - late 80's and 90's and is a reaction to what occurred. development and economic growth was stopped and there was a reaction by businesses in terms of regulations that affected them negatively. As well as the government. values became more integrated into society will continue to evolve Why did Environmentalism Develop? - Ronald ingelharts post Materialist thesis - fundamental values of society began to change - Maslow's hierarchy of human needs - shifts values since WW2 - people began considering other aspects not just economics like equality --> from materialist to post materialist Challenges to theory - if true what should we expect in developing countries Two worlds of Environmentalism: Environmentalism of Affluence - institutionalization of environmentalism and environmental movements Environmentalism of Poverty - land movements in India, China, post-materialist Transnational Environmental Movements Trans-boundary nature problems: - great lakes - climate change Enabled by technology. Most often based alliances between Environmental NGO's --> movements and their characteristics Different typologies - jurisdictions/scale - local, national, international - strategies and ideology - radical, main stream, litigation Variation exist in their resources - also with the money they have and their commitment Activities of Environmental Groups -Wilderness and Species preservation - park movements - access/use of natural resources - food security THE STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT there are fundamental disagreements about current state - measurement difficulty - how do we know exactly what is affecting nature and the environment - politicization of issues - costs? - can we afford the costs of changing the environment and what and how much are we willing to give up POL Lecture #2 fishing game: - It becomes difficult to sustainably use resources. - laws and regulations exist but need to enforced. - shared understanding has to occur - how to get incentive to get people to cooperate common pool resources : how do we prevent them from being depleted? ARAL SEA example what are their interests? - economic gain, agriculture, hydroelectricity farmers, people, electric companies are users in this case upstream and downstream - institutions - soviet union wanted to create an agriculture WHAT IS THE COMMONS? Different characteristics of goods : excludability - ease of excluding those who do not contribute (pay) for good. subtractability - degree to which the use of good by one person reduces the availability of that good to others private goods - occur within a market. they are excludable. it is easy to prevent people from using it if they don't have the money. basis of a market economy and are both excludable and subtractability toll goods - can prevent people from not using it but is not subtractable example (websites, cable, toll roads) public goods - state can provide are non-excludable and non - subtractable example(national defence system) hard to make money of these. difficult to build around these types of goods. mostly goods provided by state (justice, national defence) common goods - goods which are subtractable and is difficult to prevent others from using it examples include(fish, atmosphere) - it is possible to change the nature of goods CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMMONS Managing a common always means facing a set of problems: - excludability and the free rider problem - national defence if people don't pay taxes but difficulty to not provide provision - commitment problems(trust) - how do we trust people to do as they say? one response is respect and is better compared to corrective action - compliance and monitoring - how do we punish those who violate rules and how do we catch these people? monitoring is expensive and so catching people becomes a fundamental problem - creating institutions : again costly but the idea is to create a team, rules, laws and help to regulate SCALE OF COMMONS - the scale is going to determine the interests, users and institutions involved global scale : climate change, oceans, atmosphere national scale: forests local scale: ponds, parks, community garden THE ENVIRONMENT AS A COMMONS Many environmental problems are examples of this challenge - climate change is the overuse of a global commons: Earth's atmosphere - natural resources are often commons - forests - l
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