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Ryerson University
Politics and Public Administration
POL 607
Joseph Zboralski

Empirical vs Normative Empirical  Fact-based (Aristotle)  Realistic (Machiavelli)  They look at the world as it is Normative  Fact-based + ethical  The world should be something other than what it is  Idealistic  Greek philosopher Plato o He wrote the book ‘The Republic’ o Plato believed average Greek citizens when they make decisions they look at it from how it would benefit them instead of benefiting the whole country o More recent example is Karl Marx  Marx believed that his vision of the ideal society the reason you have oppression, poverty, exploitation, inequality is because of capitals, private property, people become rich by exploiting other people or condition  He wanted to change the capitalism theory Realist vs. Idealist Realist  This approach has built a # of perspectives o It emphasizes that there r differences between domestic politics & global politics  Global politics r characterized by anarchy  Global politics have no rules  Domestic politics have values & laws (ex. Canada) o It also emphasizes double standard (there r no rules, it is anarchy)  You would be able to do things out in the world that you won’t be able to do in US  U cannot break agreements in US but u can do that in other parts of the world  U cannot torture ppl in US but u can do it in other parts of the world o US have set up camps around the world to torture suspected terrorists as they cannot do it in US soil o Realist believe international politics really doesn’t/hasn’t change overtime  Kind of politics that existed 2000 years ago, still exists  Thucydides o Realistic argue that  Continuity  Power Politics o It was the most common & widely accepted mainstream model to study foreign politics over the last 50-60 years  Morgenthau approach is that world is made of 200 different states  Neo-Realism accepts the fundamental principles of realist model but they make significant changes o The y recognize we have seen the rise of international organizations in the last decade or so  Hegemonic Stability Theory  All these are examples of realist theory Idealist  Political idealist believe there r no distinction in politics, politics is politics everywhere o They don’t make that distinction that global politics is different from domestic politics o They believe if we can do it in one place, we can do it anywhere o They believe they should be able to construct international organizations that will allow politics to be same at a global level  They also believe there should be universal moral standards o They think there is no double standard like realis
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