PSY 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: George Santayana, Justin Bieber, Humanistic Psychology
73 views11 pages
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Kathleen Fortune
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of the mind, brain, and behaviour.
“Are you going to psychoanalyse me now?”
There are no simple answers
Human behaviour is multiply determined!
Level of Analysis
-like a ladder, moving from biological to social/cultural
-we can’t explain most psychological phenomenon if we only focus on one
level! Social culture influences<->Psycological<->Biological
Joe is addicted to heroin because... peer pressure, sickness… ADDICTS = bad life
Chris shot 10 people in a department store because... guns are easily accessible,
played too many video games… MENTAL ILLNESS and violence
Tasha became a successful surgeon because... opportunity, wealthy parent,
mentor… inborn ability/work extra hard or came from successful family =
money and support and network/knowing people
- psy relationship between variable and predict future events
What Makes Psychology Challenging
Most human behaviour is multiply determined.
Psychological influences are rarely independent of one another.
People differ from one another in terms of thinking, emotion, personality, and
Humans influence each other (reciprocal determinism).
Human behaviour is shaped by culture i.e., our generation has grown up with
technology esp. cell phones = short attention span; celebrities - #1 thing we
pay attention to; Justin Bieber hair purple people vs. 20 people died.
A Brief History of Psychology: Psychology’s long and winding road to
becoming a science
Fraud, William James, Karl Young, Hablaw -> old white guys
Myths about the History of Psychology
It is all about Freud. MYTH; learn from his mistakes
It is all about old white dudes.
It all about memorizing dates & names. NOT NECESARY
It is all just repetition of stuff you already know. COMMON SENSE?
It is as boring as watching paint dry.
- found from philosophy and religion and moved away
Why Study History?
Given the current level of research sophistication, what can be learned by studying
a discipline’s history?
“those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it” (George Santayana)
-Understanding how theoretical development are evolved through completion and
opposition of ideas
-make connect across diverse field of study
Bias in Studying History
History is written by power.
-women and people of colour had contributions ignored.
Dominant theories (and personalities) dominate textbooks.
False impression that past theories were merely stepping stones to the modern
‘correct’ way of thinking. PEOPLE WITH LOUD PERSONALITY/ the
loudest people who get their point across by talking over
Difficult to avoid imposing present sensitivities (e.g., cultural, sexual and ethical)
on the past.
What makes Psychology a science?
Long-fought battle for recognition & respect!
How did psychology successfully join the scientific community?
Why is psychology scientific?
Does it apply to all sub-disciplines within psychology?
Must go beyond description!
_Explain underlying mechanisms, PREDICT FUTURE BEHAVIOUR
Scientific vs. Humanistic
Scientific psychology: process based approach, not concerned with individuals but
Deterministic that behaviour can be explained in terms of biological,
electrical and chemical changes in the brain. All behaviour is
determined by brain states.
Humanistic psychology: we can predict behaviour, not through deterministic laws,
but based on common culture, values, language, development and attitudes.
ADD TO BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION.
Theoretical Frameworks in Psychology - TEST QUESTION!!!
Wundt and Titchener
Identify the basic elements of psychological experience
Create a ‘periodic table’ of elements of consciousness.
Emphasis on systematic observation -> looking at and describing human
Undone by reliance on introspection -> they reflect on themselves; not so
scientific, refection is great but it’s not scientific; sat around their own answers