Newborn reflexes: reflex: involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus. Infant states regular/quiet sleep (8 hours) irregular/active sleep (8 hours, rem: drowsing (1hour, alert awake (alert inactive) (2. 5 hrs, active awake (alert activity) (2. 5 hrs, crying (2 hrs) Proportion of rem sleep: 50% of newborn sleep, 25 - 30 % of 6-month-old sleep. Infants spend more than twice as much time as adults in rem sleep because such sleep stimulates higher brain centers that in turn promote development of the central nervous system. As babies become more able to process external stimulation, they spend more and more time in non-rem sleep, approaching the adult level at about the age of 3: brain development. Structures of the brain: neurons: basic units of the brain and nervous system, three units- cell body, axon, dendrites, synapses: connective spaces between neurons, glia: nerve cell that develop and produce myelin to protect and nourish the neurons. Frontal lobe- organizing behavior, responsibility to plan ahead.