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Lecture 12

PSY 302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Relational Aggression, Reinforcement, 18 Months

Course Code
PSY 302
Lixia Yang

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PSY302/F2014/YANG 1
PSY302: Child Development (Fall 2014)
November 19th, 2014, Week 12, Reading: Ch. 14
Lecture Overview
Theories of moral development
Definition of Morality
Morality: A set of principles and ideals that helps an individual to
distinguish right from wrong (cognitive)
act on this distinction (behavioral)
feel pride in good conduct and guilt due to bad conduct (emotional)
Components of Morality
Moral affects (emotional) -- Psychoanalytic
Moral reasoning (cognitive) -- cognitive
Moral behavior (behavioral) – social learning
Moral maturity: Motivation not based on reward/punishment; but Internalization of
moral standards
Psychoanalytic Theory (the affective component)
Freud’s superego (phallic stage, 3-6 yrs)
Modern psychoanalytic theorists:
Toddlers form a conscience in a context of warm, mutually responsive relationship
Committed compliance
Situational compliance
Cognitive-developmental Theory (the cognitive component)
Piaget’s stages of moral development
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Piaget’s Stage Theory
Stage 1. Morality of Constraint (<7 years)
See rules as absolute and unchangeable
Moral absolute
Weight consequence rather than motive.
Expiatory punishment
Stage 2. The Transitional Period (7/8 – 10 years)
Because of increased peer interaction, children learn that rules can be constructed by
the group
Increasingly learn to take one anothers perspective.
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PSY302/F2014/YANG 2
More autonomous in their thinking about moral issues.
Stage 3. Autonomous Morality (Moral Relativism) (> = 11/12 years)
All normal children reaching this stage.
Relative rules: can be changed
Consider fairness and equality
Value motives instead of consequence
Reciprocal punishment
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
General view has empirical support (e.g., increasing value on motives; role of cognitive
Inspire subsequent research.
Little evidence that peer interaction stimulates moral development (Quality rather than
Underestimate children’s ability to appreciate the role of intentionality.
Kohlberg’s Theory
Hypothetical moral dilemmas
The issues involved in moral judgments
Rationale/reasoning behind decisions
Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning (Reasoning behind the decisions)
Stages in the same order, differ in the final stage.
Cognitive development determines progress.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional Level
Stage 1. Punishment and Obedience: What is seen as right is obedience to authorities
Stage 2. Instrumental and Exchange (Naïve Hedonism): Morality is defined in terms of
one’s own best interest or an exchange of benefits
Conventional Level
Stage 3. Good Girl/Boy: Good behavior is doing what is expected by people close to the
individual or by fulfilling the expectations of a social role
Stage 4. Law and Order: Right behavior involves fulfilling one’s duties, upholding laws,
and contributing to society or one’s group
Postconventional level
Stage 5. Social Contact: Right behavior involves upholding rules that are in the best
interest of the group
Stage 6. Universal Ethical Principles: Values and rights are universally right and must
be upheld regardless of majority opinion
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