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Lecture 7

PSY 302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Mary Ainsworth, Attachment Theory, Active Child

Course Code
PSY 302
Dana Williams

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Attachment to Others and Development of the Self
1. Nature/Nurture 2. Sociocultural Context 3.Individual Differences 4. Children’s Welfare
Sense of Self
1. Nature/Nurture 2. Sociocultural Context 3.Individual Differences 4. Active Child
The Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship
Harry Harlow’s Monkeys - Poor social skills with other monkeys from lack of attachment
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory:
Developing and attachment is rooted in evolution but the quality depends on the experience.
Attachment remains stable from internal working models (theory about yourself, your caretakers
and people in general based on if they could get comfort and attention when needed).
Preattachment (birth - 6 weeks) Baby not cognitively aware enough for attachment
Attachment-in-the-Making (6 weeks - 6/8 months) Determining if they can trust people,
prefers primary caregiver but also enjoys other
Clear-Cut Attachment (6/8 months - 1.5 years) - Actively seek regular caregiver,
separation anxiety, mother is secure base
Reciprocal Relationships (1.5 - 2 years) Understands feelings, goals of caregiver and take
an active approach in developing relationships
Secure Base: Mother is trusted, provides security, allows baby to be knowledgeable and
Results of Attachment:
Secure attachment allows for close emotional bonds
May think others are untrustworthy
Am I lovable or unlovable
Affects how you are with children
Individual Differences in Attachment
The Strange Situation - Mary Ainsworth: Measure attachment by bringing baby into a strange
situation and seeing their reaction to the mother, if they use her a secure base through 2 mirror
Only works with kids 1 years old or else they have too much exposure to strangers
Secure Attachment (60% of 1 year old White North American Infants)
Insecure/Resistant Attachment (9%) Act mad
Insecure/Avoidant Attachment (15%) Don’t care about mother
Insecure/Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment (%15) Most insecure
Factors that Affect Children’s Attachment
Their parents’ attachment history - Adult Attachment Theory
Autonomous or Secure - Recognize (+/-s)
Dismissing - Inconsistent recall
Preoccupied - Confused and angry recounts
Unresolved/Disorganized - Weird things
Quality of Caregiving
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