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Lecture

PSY 102 CH 6 Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 102
Professor
Colleen Carney
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY102: Introduction to Psychology November 1, 2012 Week 9, Lecture 1 Learning ­behaviourists essentially made these statements ­study of the mind is outside the realm of science ­introspection about mental processes is hard to verify ­only thing we can reliably measure is behaviour ­origins of learning ­learning is: ­an observable change in an organism’s behaviour ­result of experience to repeated stimuli, over time ­conditioning Classical Conditioning ­learning is associative  ­Ivan Pavlov (1927) and his doggies ­bell=food ­John Watson (1920) ­Little Albert ­unconditioned stimulus (UCS) ­stimulus that elicits an automatic response (food in Pavlov’s experiment) ­without any prior conditioning ­what triggers the automatic response? ­unconditioned response (UCR) ­automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus (drool in Pavlov’s  experiment) ­without any prior conditioning ­what is the response to the unconditioned stimulus? ­conditioned stimulus (CS) ­the initially neutral stimuli which, after conditioning, elicits a conditioned  response (bell in Pavlov’s experiment) ­becomes non­neutral because it is associated with the unconditioned  stimulus  ­conditioned response (CR) ­response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus (drooling in Pavlov’s  experiment) ­behavioural result of conditioning ­closely related to the UCR, but not identical because it is slightly less strong Classical Conditioning for Little Albert ­unconditioned stimulus: loud noise  ­unconditioned response: crying ­conditioned stimulus: rat ­conditioned response: crying Classical Conditioning ­acquisition ­gradual strength of a conditioned response over time ­demonstrates learning ­pairing of unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus to develop the conditioned response ­stimulus generalization ­process by which other conditioned stimuli are similar but not identical to  the original conditioned stimuli elicit the same conditioned response ­Little Albert also cried when seeing his mother’s fur coat, a dog, and Santa’s  beard ­we have learned something about a conditioned stimulus and generalizing  it towards other things that are similar to it  ­stimulus discrimination ­exhibiting less of a pronounced response to other conditioned stimuli that differ  from the original conditioned stimulus ­extinction ­gradual reduction, and eventual elimination of a conditioned response ­facilitator: when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the  unconditioned stimulus ­higher­order conditioning ­development of a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus due to its  association with another, previous, conditioned stimuli ­conditioned taste aversion ­a form of classical conditioning ­can lead to the development of learned avoidance ­reactions to the taste of food ­if taste provides a negative taste, we will never want to eat that food again ­interesting facts: ­requires only one trial ­CS­UCS delay can be 6­8 hours ­stimulus generalization is low ­chemo foods ­phobias ­conditioning model of phobias ­classical conditioning also offers a way to get rid of phobia ­Mary Clover Jones (1924) treated 3 year old Peter for his phobia of  rabbits ­exposure therapy: as behavioural treatment of irrational fear ­exposure therapy ­confronting conditioned response, goal is to reduce it ­systematic desensitization ­gradual exposure to conditioned stimuli, monitoring conditioned response ­fetishes ­sexual attraction to inanimate objects ­Domjan (2004) paired a white terrycloth cylinder with a receptive female quail ­30 trials, about 50% of males mated the cylinder ­suggests that pairing neutral objects with sexy times could lead to fetishes  Operant Conditioning ­differs from classical conditioning: ­automatic vs. voluntary behaviour ­reacts in environment vs. acts upon environment ­most often has t
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