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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Biology Psychology .doc

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PSY 102
Stephen Want

Lecture #3 – Biology Psychology • Complicated mathematics; to bring arm to the front or touch nose o Implicit mathematics; years of practice/experience o Precise combination of muscle tension o Compensate for weight of object/shape • Brain decoding sound, patterns of vibration => air molecules • Waves in the air molecule, ear drums are moving -> decoding into words • Brain does tasks that we don’t listen to • CNS: brain and spinal cord • PNS: network of neurons that connect • Brain consists of 100000000000 neurons that connected to one another • Sensory (afferent) neurons – outside world  physical movement o Language of the brain o Vibration -> signals o Pressure info – signal (electrochemical system) • Interneurons: coordinate and take in what’s happening in the outside world • Motor neurons: efferent – (See glass of water, pick up glass) • Glial Cells: support network, enable you to think about things o Placeholders; efficient due to structure o Nutrient/oxygen supplier (feed neuron) o Housekeeper: clean away and recycle o Insulator – message will dissipate if otherwise (cover neuron with fatty layer – speed up signal) • Structure of Neuron s o Dendrites connected to neurons – receive info o Soma – summed up info (cell body) o Axon terminal buttons – connect to dendrites of other neurons • Neural Transmission: The Electrochemical Message o Info received through dendrites o Excitatory: excited o Inhibitory: input o Stimulates release of chemical o Partly electrical, partly chemical o Gap between dendrite and terminal button  Chemical are stored in the terminal button • Synapse o Action potential (on and off)  All or nothing • Once threshold is reached (similar to a toll booth)  Fundamentally the same regardless of the message  One speed of neuron has to transmit messages  Either sends a signal or it doesn’t  Myelinated: speeding up brain/neuron • Smarter – processing info faster • Coding Intensity of Stimulus o Send message as often as possible o Electrical message – packets of chemicals in terminal buttons o Inhibition (hyperpolarization)  Brain neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine – neurotransmitter in CNS and PNS (memory & Alzheimer’s disease) o Dopamine – inhibitory receptors, smooth muscle movement  Parkinson’s disease – lack of dopamine – shaky movement, wrong muscle movements are inhibited • Drugs and Our Brain o Chemicals affecting our electrochemical signals (3 ways)  Agonists: mimics function of neurotransmitter (copying functions) – Nicotine  Antagonists: opposite way – block neurotransmitter from doing what they do  Neuromodulator – enhance the action of the brain’s neurotransmitter  Jamming the wrong key (inhibition) o Curare: antagonist  Oppose action of acetylcholine  Acetylcholine acts in an excitatory way to activate muscles  With acetylene inhibited, diaphragm cannot
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