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PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

Chapter one Psychology: the study of metal process and behaviours Mental processes: activities of our brain when engaged in thinking, observing the environment and using language. Behaviour: observable action, and make inference ir guesses about what was happening in the mind. When studying mental processes and behaviour, the following four goal applies: 1. Description: describing the things that are being observed. 2. Explanation: telling what, where, when and how is sometimes not enough. The question of “why?” is needed to be answered. Hence the reason why psychologists developed theories and hypotheses in order to explain variety of events from why we need to sleep and why we need to learn 3. Prediction: predicting the circumstances under variety of behaviours and metal processes. Psychological research predicts the condition and effect. 4. Condition: we often encounter situation in which we want to either limit or increase certain behaviours or mental processes. Psychology can give advice on controlling behaviours, from how to limit unhealthy stress to how to increase what you remember from a class, and so on. In psychology, analyzing the brain, the individual and the group reveals how we as society functions. The following is the level of analysis in psychology. Level of Analysis in Psychology Level What is Analyzed Example: using social media The Brain How brain is structure and cell What are the patterns of brain activation as activity differ from person to people interact with “friends” online? person and situation to situation The Person How the content of the Are there personality factors that influence individual’s mental processes how much people use different types of social form and influence behaviour media? Can online social support or crisis resources improve people’s decision-making and quality of life? The Group How behaviour is shaped by the What features of social networking sites, such social abd cultural environments as relative anonymity, ease of access, and lack of face to face contact, increase or decrease users feelings of belonging and connectedness Psychologists List Name Date Contribution Johannes Muller - Pioneered the area of psychophysics - Psychophysics, how much sound or light must be present before we notice it, and how much sound or light must be added to an initial signal before we notice change - He wanted to understand how humans process sensory information Herman Von Helmholtz - First to measure the speed of a nerve impulse and determined that nerve impulses occur over time rather than instantaneously - The finding led to the understanding that thought and movement are linked, but are not the same thing - He laid the foundation for modern physiological psychology and neuroscience Gustav Fechner 1860 - Published a book called, Elements of Psychophysics which became the stepping stone of many methods and study techniques that was to be used in the emerging field of psychology William Wundt 1879 - Opened the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany - Believed that experimental method was the best method to study the mind and behaviour - Studied the content and processes of consciousness, the behaviours and metal processes - Studied voluntarism, belief that much of behaviour is motivated and that attentions is focused for an explicit purpose - Influenced the emerging science of psychology James Mark Baldwin 1890 - Student of Wundt - Open the first psychology lab in british empire in Toronto Edward Titchener - Formed the school of structuralism, the belief (Structuralism) that the mind is a collection of sensory experiences and that its study should focus on mental processes rather than explanation of the mechanisms underlying those processes - His goal was to uncover the structure, or basic elements, of the conscious mind, like looking at the makes up of car engine or bicycle, or looking at complicated Lego structure and its individual pieces - He created a method called introspection, a method of psychological study endorsed by Wundt and his followers involving careful evaluation of mental processes and how they expand simple thoughts into complex ideas introspection as an experimental technique was criticized due to its diverse findings depending on who used the technique along with its failure to examine the issues pertaining to abnormal behaviours. However, the goal of introspection was to describe observable metal processes rather than explaining the mechanism which underlies consciousness or to try to control such mechanisms William James - Set up first psychology lab in the states at (Functionalism) Harvard and wrote the book called principles of psychology - He created an approached called functionalism - Functionalism, the belief that mental processes have purpose and focus of study should be on how the mind adapt those purposed to changing environments - Functionalism, unlike introspection, did not rely on single research method. It used variety of methods which highlighted differences among individuals rather than similarities. It emphasized the need for research to include animals, children and persons with mental disorders to understand both normal and abnormal psychological functioning - Used an experiment involving sound - Participants were asked to locate sound - Functionalism method focused attention on what the mind can and does accomplish - The difference with structuralism would have been the fact that with the structuralism met
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