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PSY 105 Ch. 1 Overview of Major Perspectives Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Tsasha Awong

10/09/10 PSY 105 Overview of Major Perspectives Chapter 1 Notes The major perspectives: • Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic • Humanist • “Learning” – Behaviourist – Social Learning • Biological • Cognitive • Social/Cultural • Evolutionary Freud and psychoanalytic theory: Developed theory to explain odd symptoms presented by ‘paitents’ in his clinical practice - The impact of childhood experiences on adult self - The “unconscious”:  Part of the mind that is not accessible in everyday life  Unconscious motives influence our thoughts and behaviours  Emotion is central in this theory: Distressing emotion is caused by conflict among personality structures Humanist - Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of needs) - Carl Rogers (call them ‘clients’ or ‘persons’, not ‘patients’!) - In part, a reaction to psychoanalytic ideas - Should focus on positive side of humanity, not just negative - Distress arises, in part, from “conditions of worth” (what conditions people place upon us) Behaviourist Perspective - John Watson, B.F. Skinner - Sometimes called ‘S-R’ psychology - Argued that psychology should be: o Empirically based o Focused on observable behavior and actions, NOT the mind! - Skinner showed that behaviour changes as a result of external punishments and rewards o Free will is an illusion Social Cognitive Learning - Albert Bandura - We learn from observation and modeling (Skinner did not consider this part of learning) - Emotion example: fearful reactions are learned (either by modeling or show-casing), and reinforced The Biological Perspective - Karl Lashley o Wanted to identify the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory - Physiological psychology: o an approach that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes The Biological Perspective
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