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PSYCHOLOGY - Chapter 9 (Class Notes [Week 1+2]).docx

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PSY 202
Tsasha Awong

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Chapter 9 - Intelligence • Acting and thinking in ways that are adaptive • Explains our ability to solve problems, learn new things, adapt • Range of individual differences in these abilities • Historians have found evidence that in China, ‘civil-service’exams were used 4,000 years ago • Civil-service exams were created because they wanted to determine the skills of community members Galton’sApproach • Francis Galton (1822-1911) • First attempt at systematic study of intelligence • Conducted sensory and physical tests • “nature versus nurture” and the eugenics movement • Believed that intelligence was inherited • Eugenics: The belief and practice of improving the genetic quality of the human population • • What types of things did Galton’s test measure? Were the scores predictive? Charles Spearman and FactorAnalysis • Study a large group of people • Examine responses to a large number of items • E.g. measure intelligence with 150 items on the test Spearman • FactorAnalysis: a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors • Factor analyses are usually never perfect • “g” à based on items that “loaded” together • “specific residuals” (s)àitems not explained by “g” Spearman’s g represents a general underlying factor of intelligence S might reflect specialty talents What is the basis of g? • Reaction time? • Brain size? • Which part of cortex? • Louis Thurstone (1938) • Did not agree with concept of “g” • Found 7 primary mental abilities • Many tests of intelligence today capture these distinct cognitive abilities • Cattell (1960s, 70s) • Both Spearman and Thurstone are right • Two types of intelligence • Fluid • Crystallized Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Cattell and Horn theorized that “intelligence” is a mix of two capacities • Capacity to learn new ways of __________, or fluid intelligence • Accumulated knowledge of the world we ___________, or crystallized intelligence Expanded Models of Intelligence • Sternberg: 3 facets of intelligences • Analytic • Creative • Practical Sternberg: Three Facets Analytic Intelligence • Efficient Information processing • How well can you represent and solve problems? • High analytic intelligence, high g • Traditional type of intelligence • Creative • Applying knowledge base to novel tasks • Novel & automatic experiences • Practical • Three ways to adjust to context • Understanding one’s own strengths and weaknesses Multiple Intelligences • Gardner argues that there are entirely different domains, or areas, of intellectual skill • Argued that ___________provided support for these different types of intelligence Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic, spatial, logico-mathematical • Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic • Mixed scientific reaction to this model, because: • virtually impossible to__________ • not clear why certain abilities classify as intelligences, while others don’t • no good evidence that these intelligences are truly __________ The Logic of Intelligence Testing • Intelligence is a ___________ property that enables people
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