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Lecture

Class Notes -Chapter 9 2014.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 302
Professor
Alba Agostino
Semester
Winter

Description
1 Theories of Social Development Chapter 9 The Role of Theory • Theories of social development attempt to account for important aspects of development:Emotion, personality, attachment, self, peer relationships, morality, and gender • Such theories must: Explain how children’s development is influenced by the people and individuals around them • Examine the ways that human beings affect each other Kismet the Robot Psychoanalytical Theories • Development is largely driven by biological maturation • Discontinuity in development however, continuity of individual differences • Nature and Nurture play a role in development Freud’s Theory • Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has had greater impact on Western culture and on thinking about social and personality development than any other psychological theory. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) founder of psychoanalytic theory • Very young children have a sexual nature that motivates their behaviour and relationships with others • Children pass through a series of universal successive stages Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development • Psychic energy: The biologically based instinctual drives that fuel behaviour, thoughts, and feelings • Psychic energy becomes focused in different erogenous zones • In each stage children encounter conflicts related to a particular erogenous zone Stages of Psychosexual Development Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development 2 • ID: The earliest and most primitive personality structure, which is unconscious and operates on the pleasure principle • Oral stage (0 to 1 year): Freud’s first stage of development- primary source of gratification is oral activity (e.g., sucking and eating) Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Ego: The second personality structure to develop, which is the rational, logical and problem-solving component of personality • Anal stage (1 to 3 years): Freud’ s second stage of development- child’s interest focus on the pleasure of tension relieved by defecation Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Phallic stage (3 to 6 years): Freud’s third stage of development- focus of sexual pleasure becomes own genitalia, parents and playmates • Children identify with their same- sex parent giving rise to gender differences in attitudes and behaviour Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Superego: The third personality structure, enabling a child to control his/her behaviour based on right and wrong • Oedipus complex: A psychosexual conflict in which a boy experiences a sexual desire for his mother and wants an exclusive relationship with her Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Electra complex: A psychosexual conflict in which a girl experiences a sexual desire for her father and see their mother as a rival • Latency period (6 to 12 years):Freud’s fourth stage of development- sexual desires are channeled into constructive and socially acceptable activities Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Genital stage (adolescence to adulthood): Freud’s fifth stage of development- sexual desires are channeled towards opposite- sex peers • If fundamental needs are not met during the psychosexual stages children become fixated on satisfying these needs (e.g., need for oral gratification not met = smoking) 3 Current Perspectives • The most significant of Freud’s contributions to developmental psychology were: • His emphasis on the importance of early experience and emotional relationships • His recognition of the role of subjective experience and unconscious mental activity Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) follower of Freud, incorporated social factors into psychoanalytic theory • Proposed eight stages of development (infancy to older adulthood) • Stages are characterized by a specific crisis that the individual must resolve Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Basic Trust versus Mistrust (0 to 1 year): Erikson’s first stage– infant must develop a sense of trust • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1 to 31/2 years):Erikson’s second stage - child must develop a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to social demands Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Initiative versus Guilt (4 to 6 years):Erikson’s third stage– children identify with and learn from parents, must achieve a balance between initiative and guilt • Industry versus Inferiority (6 years to puberty): Erikson’s fourth stage- children must achieve cognitive and social skills, work industriously and cooperate Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Identity versus Role Confusion (adolescence to early adulthood):Erikson’s fifth stage– critical stage for achievement of identity, physical changes are accompanied by sexual urges and strong social pressures Learning Theories • Learning theories emphasize the role of external factors in shaping personality and development • Emphasize continuity in development- same principles control learning and behaviour throughout life • Individual differences stem from different rearing histories and environments 4 Watson’s Behaviouralism • John B. Watson (1878-1958) founder of behaviouralism • Children’s development is determined by their social environment and development is facilitated by conditioning • Psychologists should only study objective observable behaviour not the “mind” Watson’s Behaviouralism • “ Little Albert” (Watson & Rayner, 1920) • 9-month-old Albert exposed to a nice laboratory rat • On subsequent exposures the rat was paired with a loud noise frightening Albert • After a number of pairing Albert became afraid of the rat itself and other furry animals! Classical Conditioning Watson’s advise Treat them as though they were young adults. Dress them; bathe them with care and circumspection. Let your behavior always be objective and kindly firm. Never hug and kiss them, never let them sit on your lap. If you must, kiss them once on the forehead when they say goodnight. Shake hands with them in the morning. Give them a pat on the head if they have made an extraordinary good job of a difficult task. (1928, pp.81-82) Watson’s Behaviouralism • Watson’s work on conditioning helped to develop treatment procedures for fears based on deconditioning • Systematic desensitization: • Form of therapy based on conditioning in which positive experiences are paired with stimuli that are initially elicit a negative response • Used to treat fears and phobias Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) follower of Watson proposed the theory of operant conditioning • Operant Conditioning: • We repeat behaviours that lead to positive outcomes, and suppress behaviours that lead to negative outcomes 5 • Attention serves as a powerful reinforcer Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Intermittent reinforcement: • Inconsistent response to the behaviour of another person • Makes behaviours resistant to extinction • Ex. Parents who give in • Parents may encourage unwanted behaviour in their children by applying intermittent reinforcement Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Behaviour modification:Form of therapy based on operant conditioning in which reinforcement contingencies are changed to encourage more adaptive behaviour Social Learning Theory • Learning theory that emphasizes the role that observation and imitation play on behavioural development • Albert Bandura (1977-1986) argued that most human learning is social and based on the observation of other people • Children learn most rapidly and efficiently by watching what others do and then imitating them Bandura and Bobo
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