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PSY302 - Lecture 2.docx

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PSY 302
Lili Ma

PSY302 Lecture 2 Sept. 10, 2013 Session 2: Developmental Research Methods Overview • Designs for examining development • Methods for studying preverbal infants • Major research measures • Ethical concerns Designs for Examining Development • Cross-sectional design • Longitudinal design • Sequential design (combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs) • Microgentic design (studying behavior in transition) Cross-Sectional Design • People of different ages studied at the same point in time • One task, multiple age groups participate o What are the differences between age groups? • Cons: o Cohort Effect: age groups that have the same life experiences (eg. Post WWII) 1 2 o Cannot reveal stability of individual differences (eg. Will child be smarter later on in life) Longitudinal Design • Same participants observed repeatedly over time • Time period may be brief (6 months – 1 year, sometimes decades) • Cons: time consuming, expensive, subject loss (tracking them down or they die) Methods for Studying Preverbal Infants • Infants Are “Difficult” Participants! No or little command of language • Studying Preverbal Infants: What do they do? Preferential Looking Paradigm • The amount of time babies spend looking at different stimuli • If they consistently look longer at one, it tells us 2 things: o They can tell the differences between the two o They prefer to look at one over another • Examples o Gender identification – baby associating female voice to female image • Problems: What if show no preference? 1) cannot differentiate 2) don’t have preference 2 PSSept. 10, 2013 Use a different method to follow up when preferences fail… Visual Habituation • Show baby a repeated stimuli until they become bored and lose interest  Introduce a new stimulus  Regain attention & looking time • This tells us…. They can tell the differences between the two • Eg. Monkey, monkey, monkey, monkey, FISH Major Research Measures 1. Psychophysiological measures • Heart rate • Brain imaging (e.g., EEG, ERPs, fMRI) 2. Behavioral measures a) Spontaneous o Eye tracking – which and where the direction is directed o Preferential looking – eg. Baby chooses to look at attractive face o Visual Habituation – magical impossible vs. real impossible  Eg. The box and drawbridge – drawbridge bounces back once it and bounces back  regains baby’s attention because they can tell difference b) Conditioned behavior (Classical vs. Operational conditioning) 3 4 o Classical conditioning – associating stimulus Touch infant’s face  rooting for breast Mother’s voice  no reaction Touch + voice  rooting Mother’s voice  rooting (eventually) o Operational Conditioning - Reward/punishment system for behavior c) Imitative Behaviours – tendency to copy behaviours of a model o Eg. Gender stereotypes – at what age do infants learn gender roles/stereotypes? Monkey does actions  child imitates this with either a fe/male doll Immediate vs. delayed (infant of 20 months vs. newborns in the first few months) Newborns do not learn of gender roles yet o Even newborns can imitate too! Eg. Adult sticking tongue out repetitively, baby will try to do it too o Used to test social learning, conceptual understanding, and memory d) Interactive behaviors o Social referencing: The tendency to look to social partners for 4 PSSept. 10, 2013 guidance about how to respond in ambiguous situations o Eg. Visual Cliff – baby looks for cue from mother whether it is okay to cross glass or not. Scared face = do not cross; Happy face = cross anyways. Ethic Concerns • Protect from harm? • Informed consent from parents • Privacy of collected data • Update on results • Beneficial treatment Session 3: Prenatal Development Overview • Prenatal development • Prenatal influences Prenatal Development STAGE 1: Germinal Period (0 – 2 weeks) • Zygote (fertilized human egg) • Time from conception to implantation 5 6 • About 25% survival rate rd th STAGE 2: Embryonic Period (3 – 8 week) *CRITICAL PERIOD* • Embryo (size of a sesame seed) • Heartbeat begins at 6 weeks • Body parts appear, brain starts developing, sexual differentiation begins • Most vulnerable to environmental hazards STAGE 3: Fetal Period (9 week – birth) • Fetus • Last 3 months: Rapid growth of body and brain a) Fetal Perception • Sensory
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