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Lecture 10

PSY 302 - Lecture 10.docx

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Ryerson University
PSY 302
Lili Ma

Tuesday, November 26 , 2013 Moral Development, Continued Antisocial Behaviour: - The nature of antisocial behaviours o There are various kinds of antisocial behaviour  Physical vs. Relational (i.e., Spreading rumours) aggression  Instrumental vs. Reactive behaviours • i.e., Pushing a child away to get a toy vs. hitting a child for revenge  Direct harm to people vs. harm to property or rule violations o Aggression: Behaviour performed with the intention of harming a living being who is motivated to avoid this treatment  InstrumentalAggression: Harm is a means to an end  HostileAggression: Goal is to harm the victim o Proactive vs. ReactiveAggressors: PROACTIVE AGGRESSORS REACTIVEAGGRESSORS - Use aggression to solve - Hostile, retaliatory problems aggression - Believe that the aggression - Suspicious of others will ‘pay off’ - Others deserve harsh - Instrumental strategy treatment - Biased perception of the victims - Believe that they kids they dominate deserve to be dominated o ReactiveAggressors:  Display a hostile attribution bias  Tend to interpret ambiguous situations as intentionally hostile • i.e., If someone accidentally bumps into him/her, s/he believes that individual did so aggressively and reacts accordingly  Greater aggressive retaliation  Hostile counterattacks and rejection by peers  Aggressive child’s expectancies regarding peers’ hostile intent is fueled  Experience situational inferences of hostile intent  Adults who are reactive aggressors were almost always the same way as a child o Sex differences in aggression:  Physical and verbal aggression are more common in boys than in girls • Why? o Social roles and expectations o Cultural expectations o Evolutionary significance o Higher adult tolerance o Toys and themes of play geared towards boys advocate for a more physical and verbal form of aggression o Hormones o Parenting  Relational aggression is more common in girls • Increases in adolescence - Development of aggression o Even young babies at 9 or 10 months of age can engage in aggressive behaviours, called quasi-aggressive behaviours o Emerges fully at around 18 months: o Unfocused temper tantrums are a physical retaliation occurring between 2 to 3 years of age o With the growth of language skills, verbal aggression increases  i.e., “You’re so bad!” or “You’re mean!” o In the preschool years:  Instrumental aggression is their key form of aggressive behaviour  Preschool children also sometimes use relational aggression • Especially girls o Physical aggression declines during the preschool and elementary school years, while verbal and relational aggression increase  This is due to the development of their abilities to resolve their conflicts and control their emotions o In adolescence, the frequency of overt aggression decreases for most teenagers, although serious acts of violence increase markedly  At age 17, about 29% of male teenagers and 12% of female teenagers self-reported to committing at least one serious violent offence (i.e., Hitting another, causing damage to property, etc.)  In a longitudinal study, children rated as highly aggressive by their peers at 8 years of age were rated similarly at 30 years of age, for both males and females • Stability from child- to adulthood o Classical inconsistency:  On the other hand, in markedly higher rates of antisocial behaviour in adolescence: • Most of them have no history of aggression or antisocial behaviour before the age of 11 • They typically stop engaging in antisocial behaviour later in adolescence or in adulthood  Only 5% of those who conduct problems go on to have antisocial personality disorder - Influences of aggression o Factors present at or before birth:  Genetics (i.e., Twin studies)
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