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Lecture 3

PSY 304 Lecture 3: psych Lecture 3

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PSY 304
Kathleen Fortune

Lecture 3 Schemas and Stereotypes -Stereotypes are theories we carry around in our heads about how members of various groups think, look, and behave -Form networks of associations around a group of people are schemas (developed passively and actively) -Schemas become stereotypes when they are widely shared or accepted -Gender stereotypes are widely shared beliefs about men and women. -Heuristic: short cut, which causes generalizations -Schemas: things that are implemented in our head Gender Stereotypes -Appearance: -Women are dainty, soft, have longer hair -Men are tall, strong, sturdy, have shorter hair -Personality traits: -Women are warm, gentle, nurturing, helpful, expression, submissive, sensitive. -Men are independent, competitive, self-confident, dominant, unemotional, and ambitious -Social and Occupational Roles: -Women are housewives, mothers, sexy woman, athletic women, career women. -Men are blue collar, macho, athletic, businessmen. -Sexuality: -Everyone assumed to be heterosexual, but if violate gender norms in appearance: -Women who are more masculine or strong must be lesbians -These women are seen as less attractive, less popular, and worse mothers. Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class -U.S. College students viewed: -Typical American women: intelligent, materialistic, sensitive. -Black women: Loud, talkative, aggressive -No overlap in the top traits associated with each group -Low SES women as: dirty, hostile, irresponsible -Subtypes: -Mammy: dark complexion, nurturer, overweight, broad shoulders (e.g., Aunt Jemima, black slave nannies) -Jezebel: highly sexualized young Black females, immoral seductive, promiscuous (e.g., women in music videos) -Sapphire: aggressive, domineering, unfeminine bullies who drive men away with their loud mouths. Resistant to Change -Go-to heuristics that improve cognitive efficiency -Increasingly under time pressures, translating into greater reliance on ‘thin slices’ of information -Once schemas are set: -We encode schema-consistent information, ignore schema-inconsistent information -We assimilate, rather than accommodate -Lack of interaction with outgroup members -Subtyping allows us to maintain existing beliefs! Impact of Stereotypes -Internalization – we feel like we must match up with perscription norms and expectations e.g. Pressure to look a certain way or take risky actions -We see them as true expressions of our authentic selves, rather than socially constructed. -May generate self-fulfilling prophecies, guiding major life decisions (e.g. sex, parenting, career) -Fear of confirming stereotypes = stereotype threat, which contributes to anxiety and cognitive underperformance. Stereotypes as Primes -Sexist stereotypes can prime sexist and criminal behaviour like: -Sexual objectification -Sexual harassment -Stalking -Sexual assault -Workplace discrimination -The Media Reinforcing Gender Stereotypes Every Chance it gets Watching Television -Canadians spend more time watching TV each day than socializing, playing sports or eating. -Avg. 21.4 hours/week -McLuhan calls it the “first curriculum”: -Reinforces gender stereotypes -Features more males (who have higher status too) -Women featured in comedies (generally thinner women) -Heavier women subject of fat jokes -Women subject to more sexual comments from males Representations of Women -Women still underrepresented in all forms of media. -Certain women are almost invisible. Examples? -Women and girls are underrepresented in children’s picture books, comic books. -Commercials portray them in stereotypical ways E.g. obsessed with toilet paper, Swiffer, air freshener -Rarely shown in workplace, usually at home and/or taking care of kids Representations of Men -Often model hyper masculinity & anti-social behaviour: -Callousness toward women and/or sex -Thrill seeking -Toughness -Rarely shown with families, or shown as incompetent men at relationships/nurturance. -Working class men depicted as buffoons, lazy slobs Face-ism? -Proportion of overall image that is devoted to the face . -Archer (19
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