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Chapter 12 biological psychology

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Ryerson University
PSY 324
Tara M Burke

Chapter 12 (week 7): Emotion What is emotion? 3 components to an emotional response: ­ Cognition (this is a dangerous situation) ­ Feelings (I’m scared) ­ Behavioral (run!) ­ Physiology (increased heart rate and sweating) *Fight or Flight brain area= amygdala* Cortisol= elps to adapt to stress Feeling of Emotion: Theories ­ James-lange Theory (physiological) • Starts with an event (bears infront of you), followed by an arousal (increase in cortisol and adrenaline, increase in blood-flow to the muscles, you begin sweating, etc), then the emotion follows the physiological change EVENTAROUSALINTERPRETATIONFEELING • Evidence: Pure autonomic failure- dysfunction of the ANS. Patients experience blunted feelings • BOTOX and emotion • Strack: People rate cartoons as funnier when they hold a pencil in their mouth vs between their lips • individuals with botox are not as good at identifying emotions of sadness • Mobius syndrome: Individuals who can’t move their facial expressions, but still report feeling “happy” ­ Cannon-Bard theory (physiological) • Physiological occurrences do not happen instantaneously, they take time • Event Produces emotional reaction Brain Muscles, endocrine, feeling i.e. “fear” ­ Schachter-singer theory ­ If appropriate explanation for aroused state exist, the person is unlikely to find alternative cognitive labeling ­ If no causal explanation for the aroused state, the person will label arousal in terms of available cognitions ­ Under identical “cognitive circumstances” the person will only respond with emotional experience to the degree that the person is physiologically excited ­ Schachter and singer: ­ Epinephrine or Saline injection ­ Informed/ ignorant group ­ “cognitive circumstance”:Euphoric or angry confederate ­ Result: Epinephrine-Ignorant group mirrored confederate (observational rating and self-report) *If no causal explanation for the arousal state, the person will label arousal in terms of available cognitions Dutton And Aron: Misattribution of Arousal ­ Male participants crossing sturdy, slightly arousing, or highly arousing bridge ­ At end of bridge, male or female interviewer awaited the [participant ­ Result: Female interviewer elicited higher scores of sexua attraction in the arousing bridge condition compared to all other conditions Under identical “cognitive circumstances” the person will only respond with emotional experience to the degree that the person is physiologically excited Question: Do we run because we’re scared or are we scared because we are running? Answer: We are scared because we are running Neuronal Underpinnings of Emotion Amygdala: lateral nucleus, basal nucleus, central nucleus ­ Fear: Absolute (everyone experiences fear towards certain situations) vs learned stimuli ­ Conditional emotional response (i.e. Pavlovs dog) Evidence in animal: Lesions to the central nucleus of amygdala ­ No fear when confronted with aversive stimuli, including handling ­ Decreased cortisol ad stress-induced illness ­ No CER-Kluver-Bucy syndrome Stimulation Studies -Increased fear and agitation Chronic stimulation and stress-induced illness Evidence in Humans; Amygdala involved in emotional response of fear ­ stimulation of hypothalamus vs. amygdala in patients going in for brain surgery ­ Lesion of amygdala and impaired Conditioned emotional response ­ Auditory perception of fear in amygdala-damages patients Urbach-Wiethe disease: rare genetic condition that causes calcium to build up into the amygdala until it wastes away ­ study of SM ­ Experiences fearlessness that is dangerous to her: robberies at gunpoint, physical assaults, no inhibition when strangers approach ­ Reports feeling angry but not afraid in response to these incidents ­ Inability to recognize fear or disgust, or reduced intensity ­ Impaired memory of emotional expression Insular cortex ­ activated when looking at disgusting pictures or facial expressions of someone expressing disgust ­ Damage to insula results in inability to experience and recognize d 2 reasons for aggressive behavior ­ Reproduction behaviors ­ Defensive behaviors Important players in aggression ­ amygdala ­ vmPFC ­ Serotonergegic system Serotonergic system ­ Enabling synaptic connections inhibit aggressive behavior ­ Destruction of synaptic connection increases aggressive behavior Howell et al ­ 5-HIAA in CSF ­ Increased aggression and risk behavior in low 5-HIAA Aggression & Impulse Control Research in Humans ­ Low –HT turnover linked to: • Recurrent violent behavior • Suic
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