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Biological Psychology- lecture 2

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PSY 324
Tara M Burke

Biological Psychology- Lecture 2 ­ Nervous system is divided into two areas: CNS, PNS Basic structure of the Neuron ­ Dendrites: enable communication between the neurons ­ Axon: Action potential- signal that travels down it ­ Myelin sheath: insulates the axon and allow the action potential to travel through the axon effectively ­ Cajal (neuron theory): talked about the different shapes and varieties of cells ­ Cells connect in a directional manner (Signal enters in through the dendrites, through the axon and out the terminal buttons) Cells of the Nervous System ­ Grey matter- where the cells are found ­ 3 types of neurons based on structure: Bipolar (has 2 processes-does not have a myelin sheath because it is not necessary for shorter connections), Multipolar (multiple processes), Pseudo- unipolar (has only one process) Internal Structure of the Neuron ­ Plasma Membrane: protects the inner cell, regulates molecules that enter and exit the cell. It is also selectively permeable- proteins embedded along the cell membrane ­ Cytoplasm: Highly complex, always in movement, allows for different movements of particles, contains organelles, chemical reaction moves material from one side of the cell to another ­ Mitochondria: Power house of the cell, ATP created, outer smooth membrane, inner folds of cristae where chemical reactions occur, the more energy that's required the more mitochondria will be found in the cell to help produce more energy ­ The Nucleus: control center ­ Ribosome: Synthesis of protein ­ Microtubules: bundles of protein filaments, transports substances from place to place within the cell and along the axon, axoplasmic transport (transportation of nutrients from the soma down the axon) , retrograde (axon to the cell body) vs. anterograde, tao protein is essential for the structure of the microtubules Cells of the Nervous System 2 Main supporting Cells of the nervous system ­ Glia (many more glia than there are neurons) ­ Schwann - Neuroglia: located in the CNS and destroy and remove damaged neurons ­ 4 flavors of Neuroglia: Radial glia, astrocytes (take in glucose and store it, create lactate), oligodendrocytes (provides the insulation of the axon, one cell for multiple segments of the myelin sheath), microglia (inflammatory response after experiencing head trauma) ­ Astrocytes are important in the learning process and the process of LTP, important for nourishment and structure Myelin Creators - oligodendrocytes provides the insulation of the axon, one cell for multiple segments of the myelin sheath - Schwann Cells: Single cell that wraps itself around the axon and uses the entire cell itself The Blood-Brain Barrier ­ Injected dyes into the blood stream and found that there is something that separates the brain from the spinal cord ­ Realized that theres some sort of barrier of cells that create a semi- permeable barrier between the blood and the brain/spinal cord ­ There are “tight junctions” that sometimes prevents molecules from travel through it ­ 3 chemicals that are allowed to travel through the BBB small uncharged, lipid-soluble or transport molecules ­ Has a system that allows nutrients into the brain to feed the brain nutrients Compromised by: 1. Hypertension 2. Radiation 3. Infection 4. Trauma 5. Inflammation Circumventricular Organs 1. Area postrema: “vomiting center” Communication within a Neuron ­ Descartes discovered the reflex ­ Receptors stimulated, sends
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