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Biological Psychology Chapter 5- sexual development

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PSY 324
Tara M Burke

Chapter 5: Sexual development - Sexual dimorphic behaviour: courting, dating, parental behavior, and aggressive behavior What does it mean to be male female? ­ 1 determine genetic sex (female XX, male XY) nd ­ 2 determine sex organs: gonads (testis/ ovary), internal sex organs • SRY gene on the Y chromosome differentiates development of testis/ ovary- cause gonads to become tesis • XX male syndrome: genetic sex is “female”, SRY is translocated to X chromosome, male gonads are formed, infertile, less hair, shorter than average ­ 3 determined by hormones • organizing effect: sex hormones during prenatal development determines structure of sex organs and brain. Long lasting structural effects • Notion of sensitive period • Initially bisexual sex organ • Becoming female: mullerian system is when the embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs (fimbriae, fallopian tubes, uterus, inner 2/3 of vagina) • Becoming male: wolffian system is the embryonic precursors of the internal sex organs (seminal vesicles, vas dendrites) • Hormones secreted by the testes determine sex organs: 1. anti-mullerian hormone 2. androgens (i.e. testosterone, dehydrotestosterone) -Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS): • genetic sex XY • Receptors do not respond to androgens • Range from complete (external genitalia feminized) to partial (partial genitalia masculinized) to mild (masculinized) • Infertile -Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome: • Genetic XY • Failure to produce hormone AMH or no receptors • Both female and male internal sex organs • Infertile • Hermaphroditism -Turners Syndrome: • Genetic sex X or X) • Gonads do not develop (non working ovaries) • Internal and external organs are female • No estrogen -Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) • Genetic sex XX • Exposure to high androgen levels during development • Mullerian system activated, but external organs are “intersex” Activating effects: associated with sex hormones that are activated later in life (i.e. ovulation, ejaculation) – HPG Axis ­ Testosterone: facial and body hair, lowers voice, musculare development, genital growth, sex drive ­ Estradiol: breast development, lining of uterus, body fat deposition, maturation of female genitalia, sex drive Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior ­ menstrual cycle: • reproductive cycle in humans • in animals- exual behavior linked with ovulation • Cycle: GnRH  FSH  ovarian follicles estradiol  growth of terine lining  LH (feedback loop from estradiol)  ovulation  rupture of ovarian follicle and development of corpus luteum  estradiol and progesterone  pregnancy or menstruation 3 hormones involved, organs involved and how many days it takes for the egg to travel to the uterus… ­ organs: pituitary, ovary, uterus ­ Sexual Behavior in male rodents • Dependent on testosterone • Testosterone enhances sensitivity of penis and allows for blood flow to penis • Similarities with humans: intromission, pelvic thrusting, ejaculation ­ Sexual behavior in males • Men require testoreone for sexual potency and desire •
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