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Lecture 3

Week 3 - Structure and Function of the Cells of the Nervous System

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Ryerson University
PSY 324
Ayesha Khan

Week 3 Structure and Function of the Cells of the Nervous SystemSeptember23111137 AMInformation in the form of light sound waves odours tastes or contact with objects is gathered from the environment by specialized cells called sensory neuronsMovements are accomplished by the contraction of muscles which are controlled by motor neuronsThey also control the secretion of glandsIn between sensory neurons and motor neurons com the interneuronsneurons that lie entirely within the central nervous systemLocal interneuronsform circuits with nearby neurons and analyze small pieces of information Relay interneuronsconnect circuits of local interneurons in one region of the brain with those in other regionsThrough these connections circuits of neurons throughout the brain perform functions essential to tasks such as perceiving learning remembering decoding and controlling complex behaviours The nervous system consists of two basic divisionsThe central nervous system CNS consists of the parts that are encased by the bones of the skull and spinal column the brain and the spinal cordThe peripheral nervous system PNS is found outside these bones and consists of the nerves and most of the sensory organsCELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMNeuronsStructureaThe neuron nerve cell is the informationprocessing and informationtransmitting element of the nervous system They come in many shapes and varieties according to what function they performA multipolar neuronis a neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma Most common type found in the CNSA bipolar neuron has one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma They are usually sensoryA unipolar neuron has one axon attached to its soma the axon divides one branch receiving sensory information and the other sending the information into the CNSDendrites of most unipolar structures detect touch temperature and other sensory events concerning the skinOther unipolar neurons detect events in our joints muscles and internal organsMost neurons have in some form or another the following four structuresThe cell body or somaContains the nucleus and much of the machinery that provides for the life processes of the cellDendritesA branched treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron receives information from the terminal buttons of other neuronsAxonLong slender tube often covered by myelin sheathCarries information from the cell body to the terminal buttons This basic message is called an action potent
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