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PSY 325 (99)
Lecture

PSY 325 OCT 18 2012.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 325
Professor
Karen Milligan
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY 325 L6 10/19/12 **ADDED IN LECTURE CLASS #6:ANXIETY DISORDERS ANXIETY DISORDERS – CLASS OVERVIEW GENERALINTRODUCTION TO ANXIETY • DISCUSSION OF SPECIFICANXIETY DISORDERS --THEORIES REGARDING CAUSES AND MAINTAINING FACTORS ANDASSOCIATED TREATMENTS • PHOBIAS • PANIC/AGORAPHOBIA • OBSESSIVE • COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) • GENERALIZEDANXIETY DISORDER (GAD) INTRODUCTION TO ANXIETY • LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. IDENTIFY COGNITIVE, EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIOURAL,AND PHYSICALSYMPTOMS OFANXIETY AND UNDERSTAND THE RELATION BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS 2. DIFFERENTIATE NORMALADAPTIVE ANXIETY FROM MALADAPTIVEANXIETY 3. UNDERSTAND HOWANXIETY IS UNDERSTOOD IN TERMS OF BIOLOGICALAND PSYCHOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS WHAT IS ANXIETY? • EXPERIENCE OF STRONG NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS OFTENSION IN RELATION TO THE ANTICIPATION OF FUTURE DANGER OR MISFORTUNE • ADAPTIVE EMOTION THAT HELPS READY PEOPLE PHYSICALLYAND PSYCHOLOGICALLY FOR COPING WITH POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS SITUATIONS • WE PERFORM BETTER WHEN WE ARE ALITTLE BITANXIOUS! • ANXIETY IS EXPECTEDAND NORMALAT CERTAINAGES AND IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS SYMPTOMS OFANXIETY COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL SOMATIC (PHYSICAL) BEHAVIOURAL NORMALFEARS AND DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES 1 PSY 325 L6 AGE EXAMPLES OF COMMON FEARS 7-12 MONTHS STRANGERS 1 YEAR SEPARATION FROM PARENTS 4 YEARS LOUD NOISES,ANIMALS, DARK ROOMS, SEPARATION FROM PARENTS, BODILY HARM 6 YEARS GHOSTS, THUNDERAND LIGHTENING, SLEEPING/ STAYINGALONE 9-12 YEARS TESTS, SCHOOLPERFORMANCE, DEATH, PHYSICALAPPEARANCE ADOLESCENCE RELATIONSHIPS, SCHOOL, POLITICAL ISSUES, APPEARANCE, FUTURE NORMAL------------------------------VS----------------------MALADAPTIVE -CONCERNSARE REALISTIC -CONCERNSARE UNREALISTIC; SOURCE OFANXIETY EITHER CANNOT HURT THEM OR VERY UNLIKE TO OCCUR -AMOUNT OF FEAR -AMOUNT OF FEAR EXPERIENCED IS OUT EXPERIENCED IS IN OF PROPORTION TO THE HARM THE PROPORTION TO THE COULD CAUSE THREAT THREAT -FEAR RESPONSE -PERSISTSAFTER THREAT ENDS SUBSIDES WHEN THE EXPERIENCE OFANTICIPATORY THREAT ENDS ANXIETY FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE • ANXIETY IS THE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE TO PERCEIVED THREAT OR DANGER. • ACTIONSARE AIMEDAT ESCAPING HARM EITHER BY CONFRONTING THE SOURCE (FIGHT) OR BY EVADING IT (FLIGHT) AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SYMPATHETIC – GIVES YOU NORA-ADRENALINE PARASYMPATHETIC- BRINGS YOU BACK TO NORMAL BY BREAKING DOWN THE CHEMICALGEARED FOR THE REACTION THEORIES OFANXIETY • BIOLOGICAL • PSYCHOLOGICAL ◦ PSYCHODYNAMIC ◦ BEHAVIOURAL ◦ COGNITIVE 2 PSY 325 L6 BIOLOGICALCONTRIBUTIONS • GENETIC VULNERABILITY + ENVIRONMENT “TURNS GENE ON” • NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ◦ GABA ◦ SEROTONIN ◦ CORTICOTROPHIN-RELEASING FACTORAND HPAAXIS • BRAIN STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ◦ LIMBIC SYSTEM • ROLE OF ENVIRONMENT (E.G., SMOKING) PSYCHODYNAMIC • ANXIETY SYMPTOMSARE ARESULT OF REPRESSED INNER CONFLICT • IF CONFLICT NOT REDUCED BY DEFENCE MECHANISM ---NEUROSIS (EXPRESSION OF ANXIETY) BEHAVIOURALCONDITIONING COGNITIVE THEORIES • LEARNED “FALSE ALARM” • CLASSICALCONDITIONING TRUE ALARM ► EMOTIONALRESPONSE ► INTERNAL(BODY) EXTERNALCUES (SITUATION) ▼ CUES BECOME ASSOCIATED WITH FEAR RESPONSE IN THE ABSENCE OFTRUE THREAT. (BODY BECOMES OVERACTIVATED) • EMPHASIZE THE ROLE OFTHOUGHTS, FEELINGSAND PERCEPTIONS • AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS • ANTICIPATORYANXIETY TWO COMMON DISTORTIONS • OVERESTIMATE THE PROBABILITY OFANEGATIVE EVENT OCCURRING • OVER-ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF CONTROLTHATYOU HAVE OVER THE EVENT 3 PSY 325 L6 THREE VULNERABILITIES (BARLOW, 2002) • BIOLOGICAL – HAVE MORE OFAPESSIMISTIC NEGATIVEAPPROACH, GLASS HALF EMPTY • SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL – HEIGHTENED SENSITIVITY FOR PHYSICALSENSATIONS • GENERALIZED PSYCHOLOGICAL– LACK SELF CONFIDENCE, SELF ESTEEM, INABILITYTO COPE ► COMBINATION OFTHREE INCREASES RISK FORANXIETY DISORDER SPECIFICANXIETY DISORDERS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. IDENTIFY KEY FEATURES OF EACH DISORDER 2. DISCUSS CURRENT BIOLOGICALAND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES 3. DISCUSSAND CRITICALLYAPPRAISEAVAILABLE TREATMENTS PANIC • HEART PALPITATIONS • SWEATING • POUNDING HEARTBEAT • TREMBLING OR SHAKING SENSATIONS OF • NUMBNESS OR TINGLING SHORTNESS OF BREATH OR SMOTHERING • SENSATIONS • FEELING OF CHOKING • CHILLS OR HOT FLASHES • CHEST PAIN OR DISCOMFORT • NAUSEAAND UPSET STOMACH • DIZZINESS, UNSTEADINESS, • BEING DETACHED FROM ONESELF • LIGHTHEADEDNESS, OR • FEAR OF LOSING CONTROL OR FAINTNESS GOING CRAZY • FEELINGS OF UNREALITY OR • FEAR OF DYING PANIC – PREVALENCE • EACH YEAR, ABOUT 7% OF PEOPLE EXPERIENCE APANICATTACK • 3% TO 4% OF PEOPLE WILLDEVELOPPANIC DISORDERAT SOMETIME IN THEIR LIVES (CRASKE & WATERS, 2005) • TYPICALLY DEVELOPS BETWEEN LATE ADOLESCENCEAND THEIR MID-30S • TENDS TO BE CHRONIC ONCE IT BEGINS PANIC – CAUSES AND MAINTAININGFACTORS KINDLING MODELOF PANICATTACK 4 PSY 325 L6 PANIC – FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE • PANICATTACKS CAN BE INDUCED MORE EASILY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PANIC DISORDER • EXPERIENCE MORE FEAR DURING INDUCTIONS THAN THOSE WITHOUT PANIC • POORLY REGULATED FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE E.G., ANTONY ETAL., 2006 BIOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY + PSYCHOLOGICALSENSITIVITY • OVER-ATTEND TO BODY SENSATIONS (INTEROCEPTIVE AWARENESS) • MISINTERPRET INANEGATIVE WAYAND CATASTROPHIC MANNER • CONTROLBELIEFS
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