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Week 7.docx

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PSY 325
Karen Milligan

Week 7 Cognitive Poor concentration and attention, indecisiveness, poor-self esteem, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts, delusions and halucinations Physiological and behavioural Sleep or appetite disturbances, psychomotor retardation or agitation, catatonia, fatigue, loss of energy Emotional Sadness, depressed mood, anhedonia (loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities), irritability (especially in children and adolescents) Comorbid: occur at the same time Unipolar disorders of depression: - Sometimes depression can be the main psychological disorders but other times it may be primary Melancholic features: low mood, distinct depressive moves Psychotic features: delusions, beliefs that are not set in reality or hallucinations, see things that are not really there Postpartum depression usually occurs within the first 4 weeks. Prevalence of Depression: - Big increase between 15-24 (big transitional time, social context) and decreased 25-34 and 45- 54(coping mechanisms developed Depression can last 2 weeks too many years at a time. Depression can cause loss of social support which can lead to more episodes of depression. 25% of people who experience depression will develop chronic patterns. 85% of people go on to have another episode. Depression in Children - Escalation of depression during adolescent years is more increased for girls than boys - Some impact of hormones - Bodily dissatisfaction can have a big impact on self-concept and self-esteem – girls may have a harder time with this due to puberty - Levels of self-criticism at age 12 predicted depressive symptoms at age 31 Dysthymic: low negative mood is central to it - Difficult, strong cognitions of negative thoughts about the future - 70% of adults will go onto have a major depressive disorder - People with DOUBLE DEPRESSION experience both Bipolar Depression: contain depression and mania Types of Bipolar disorders Bipolar 1 disorder - Alternate between major depressive episodes and manic episodes Bipolar II disorder - Similar to bipolar I, but experience hypomania (not to the extreme as a manic episode) rather than mania Cyclothymic Disorder - Alternate between sub-threshold depressive symptoms and hypomania  Rapid cycling dipolar disorder (4+ cycles/year) Bipolar Disorder in Childnre - Increasingly being diagnosed - Controversial - Length of an episode? - ADHA vs. hypomania – needs to be a change from the usual - DSM-V is addressing through new diagnostic categoryTemper Dysregulation DisorderDisruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Mood Disorders: Biological Contributions - Genetics: hereditability is symptom-specific - Neurotransmitter: amount of receptors and levels of neurotransmitters at the synapse o In mania high levels of dysregulation especially dopamine - Structural abnormalities: primary (impact of gene on the brain structure) and secondary (impact of the experience of depression, or chronic levels of stress on the brain structure) o Prefrontal cortex: less activity, goal related, la
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