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QMS 102 (186)
Lecture

Effects On The Environment.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Quantitative Methods
Course Code
QMS 102
Professor
Shavin Malhotra

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Effects On The Environment Man has had many far-reaching effects on the environment over the years. Global warming, pollution and the damage to the ozone layer are a few of the major things that can be heard about in the news. Man has damaged the earth gradually over the years and this damage cannot be reversed, we are now trying to stop any more damage being caused to the environment. For example, hedgerows have been destroyed but now people have realized what effects this is having on the environment the government are paying farmers to replant them instead of fencing. Not all of man's effects on the environment are harmful some are beneficial. Conservation work is going on across the country and this is helping to preserve the wildlife and countryside that we have left. The expanding human population has placed a huge demand on the food production of the country. The resources are limited but the population is increasing quite rapidly so the problems are growing. The demand for food means that crops need to be perfect so the use of fertilizers and herbicides is increasing too. One of the problems in the countryside affecting the environment is the disposal of effluent and other pollutants. The main type of waste that we have to dispose of is organic effluent particularly from farms and sewage works. This is disposed of in several ways, the main one being pumping it into the sea and rivers around the country. In more recent years sewage recycling plants have been developed to reuse the water in the waste. Water treatment works are used to treat the waste before it is pumped into the river or sea. The disposal of the waste is accomplished in several ways. Direct removal into a stream or lake is the most commonly used means of disposal. In parts of the world that are faced with worsening shortages of water for both domestic and industrial use, authorities are reusing appropriately treated wastewater for, irrigation of non-edible crops, industrial processing, recreation, and other uses. In one such project, the Potable Reuse Demonstration Plant in Denver, Colorado, the treatment process uses normal primary and secondary treatment followed by lime clarification to remove suspended organic compounds. During this process, an alkaline state is created to improve the process. In the next step, re-carbonation is used to bring the pH level to neutral. Then the water is filtered through several layers of sand and charcoal, and ammonia is removed by ionisation. Pesticides and any other dissolved organic materials still present are absorbed by a granular, activated-carbon filter. Viruses and bacteria are then killed by ozonisation. At this stage the water should be cleansed of all contaminants, but, for added reliability, second-stage carbon absorption and reverse osmosis are used, and chlorine dioxide is added to obtain the highest possible water standard. Crude oil, known as petrol, is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, medicines, plastic, building materials, paints and to generate electricity. It is also used for the fuelling of transport such as cars and planes. Petrol contains hydrocarbons and sulphur. When the hydrocarbons and sulphur are burned for use they give off sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide. These gases are harmful to the environment. Sulphur dioxide forms sulphuric acid and causes acid rain, carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect means that the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that usually prevent heat loss from the earth are increasing. This results in raised temperatures on earth leading to partial melting of the polar ice caps. If the ice caps melted too much some countries would be flooded, if they were all to melt then the whole world would be underwater. There is a need to produce more food for the population and a need to preserve the wildlife and the environment. It is essential to satisfy the needs of the expanding population but it is also essential to preserve the environment. Living organisms are dependent on each other, if a tiny little fungus or algae plants were destroyed then the rest of the food chain would be affected. The algae or fungi are the producers so the primary consumers have nothing to eat so they die and the secondary consumers then have nothing to eat so they die. Plants and can be used for many purposes which is why they are becoming extinct. Drugs have been derived from plants. Genetic variation also decreases with the loss of species and new genes can never be discovered e.g. for crop breeding. The reduction of trees is leading to more carbon dioxide in the air and therefore increasing global warming. The government is trying to reverse some of the effects man has had on the environment by, for example, paying farmers to replace hedgerows in their fields which had previously been removed to make room for more crops. Factories have to monitor the amount of emissions that come from their chimneys very closely and if they emit too much sulphur dioxide or other harmful chemicals then the factory can be closed down. Factories also have to monitor the amount of chemicals that they pump into the drains, they have to neutr
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